Overview of Education in Japan

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  • 1- This system, implemented by the School Education Law enacted in March 1947 after WWII, owes its origin to the American model 2- (October 2005, Daily Yomiuri) that it is intending to make changes in the Education Law to allow schools to merge the 6-3 division between elementary and middle schools. The key purpose for this change is to allow elementary and middle schools to pool or share their resources, with special regard to making available specialist teachers of middle schools to elementary schools.
  • From 3rd grade to High School
  • Overview of Education in Japan

    1. 1. Battambang Regional Teacher Training Centre General Education, Special Need Education and Higher Education in Japan Presented by Mr. Soeung Sopha
    2. 2. Content 0 Introduction 0 General Education 0 Special Education 0 Higher Education 2
    3. 3. Introduction “The sakoku policy – locked country", enacted in 1633 by the Tokugawa Shogunate and opened in 1868. Two atomic booms in 1945 In 1951, Japan's government shifted from imperial and military rule to a parliamentary democracy Population: 128,056,026 (2010) 3
    4. 4. General Education Compulsory Education Junior High School (3 years) Elementary (6 years) High School (3 years) Education System University (4 years) 4
    5. 5. Schools 0 Pre-school: 0 Kindergarten: 14,279 0 Day Child care: 22,000 0 Elementary: 24,000 0 Lower Secondary: 11,000 0 Upper Secondary: 5,066 0 University: 710 5
    6. 6. Some Statistics 0 20.7 million students were enrolled in educational institutions in Japan from the kindergarten to university levels. 0 1,760,442 in kindergartens; 0 7,226,911 in elementary schools; 0 3,748,319 in junior high schools; 0 3,809,801 in senior high schools; 0 250,065 in junior colleges; 0 2,803,901 in universities and graduate schools; 0 57,875 in technical colleges; 0 786,135 in special training schools; and 0 189,570 in other types of schools. 6
    7. 7. School Break 0 Starts from early April - March and students attend school for 2 semesters (April – September), (October – March) University Entrance in April or October 7
    8. 8. 4 Pillars of General Education 1 2 3 4 • International Understanding • Educational Information and Technology • Social welfare . Human Rights 8
    9. 9. Roles of the Modern Schools 0 Modern schools are regarded as performing four key roles: 1 2 3 4 • Transmitting cognitive knowledge • Socializing and acculturating • Selecting and differentiating young people . Legitimating what they teach 9
    10. 10. General School likes? 0 School time: 0 Starts at 8:30 with 4 periods (50 minutes each) 0 After lunch: there are 2 more periods 0 Cleaning room: stairwell, corridor, classroom … 0 Club activities: Extra curricular (free to join) 0 School wear: 0 2 sets –winter and summer, indoor shoes 0 During P.E: sports shoes, swimsuits, swimming cap … 10
    11. 11. Typical Daily Schedule at Secondary Schools 6 school-hour 5 school-hour Arrival at school 08:30 ~ 08:40 08:30 ~ 08:40 Short Home Room 1st class 08:40 ~ 08:50 08:55 ~ 09:45 08:40 ~ 08:50 08:55 ~ 09:45 2nd class 09:55 ~ 10:45 3rd class 10:55 ~ 11:45 09:55 ~ 10:45 10:55 ~ 11:45 4th class 11:55 ~ 12:45 11:55 ~ 12:45 School lunch 12:50 ~ 13:05 12:50 ~ 13:05 Lunch break 5th class 6th class Cleaning 13:05 ~ 13:25 13:30 ~ 14:20 14:30 ~ 15:20 15:25 ~ 15:35 13:05 ~ 13:25 13:30 ~ 14:20 N/A 14:25 ~ 14:35 Short Home Room 15:40 ~ 15:50 14:40 ~ 14:50 Club activity Summer time~17:45 Winter time~17:15 11
    12. 12. Subjects for Upper Secondary Schools 1st Category 2nd Category General 1- Suits for both who wish to get higher education and who wish to get a job but no specific vocational skill. 2- provides vocational or other specialized education for those students who have chosen a particular vocational or specialty area as their future career Specialized 3rd Category Integrated 3- offer a wide variety of subject areas and subjects from both the general and the specialized courses, to adequately satisfy students’ interests, abilities and aptitudes, future career plans 12
    13. 13. Specialized Courses Others like Music, Arts, language, physical education … 13
    14. 14. History of Special Education 0 Special school: blind and deaf (1878 in Kyoto); intellectual disabilities (1890 in Matsumoto city, Nagano Prefecture) 0 Various kinds (around 1930) 0 Seriously devastated during WW II 0 Children with disability were forced to move to rural 0 All special classes were closed except one in Tokyo, but then .. 0 Reconstruction of Inclusive Education after WW II 14
    15. 15. Development of Special Edu. 0 9 –year- compulsory education (1947) 0 Thesis: 1947 – 1979: Dev. of special schools and special classes (schools: 837, classes: 20,865 with 115,711 children) 0 Antithesis (1979 to 2000): 2000: introduction of integrated education “dumping”_was criticized in Western countries, impractical idea in Japan_lack of teachers _faded away 0 Synthesis: 2000 to present: Inclusive and special needs (supportive) education 15
    16. 16. Special Edu. Reform Policy 0 Part-time special classes_1990 0 Resource Room (RR) was included (School Education Law amendment in 1993) 0 Significant change: 1.6% enrolled not only in RR (0.3%) but also SS(0.5%) and SC (0.8). So, RR is a bridge to unify regular class with segregated SS and SC. 0 1992: Committee of LD and LD-like Disabilities was set up. (main points:1)Children have difficulties in learning and using skills; 2) LD or LDD identification and 3) special care by regular class teachers, teamteaching, individualized teaching, RR and specialists) 16
    17. 17. Special Edu. Reform Policy (Con.) 0 2002: give flexibility to local government for C.D placement 0 2004: Joint activities and Learning 0 2007: Local Edu Board obliged to ask parents for opinion about the placement of CD 0 Postponement of School Attendance: 0 Document written by doctor 0 Parents’ application 81 children are out of school (2007) 17
    18. 18. 70 schools for the deaf; 107 for the blind; 790 for those with disabilities Education System Nursery Kindergarte n Sp. Needs School 3 to 5 Class size: Ave: 26 E, 30 L. Sta: 40 6y 3y 3y Elementar y School L. Second. School Upper Sec. School Sp. Needs School Sp. Needs School Sp. Needs School 6> Compulsory Education Source: UNESCO, int. Bureau of Edu, 2007 12 > 15 > 4y Uni. etc. 18 > Class size: Ave: 3, Sta: 6_single 3_multi 18
    19. 19. View of SNE System Mild Regular Schools/Regular Classes: - Team –teaching - Achievement-based teaching - Small-group classes Special Support Service in RR Special Classes Special Needs Schools Seve re Source: UNESCO, int. Bureau of Edu, 2007 19
    20. 20. Very Supportive… 0 Community: 0 Beeping sound 0 Yellow line for 0 School: 0 Ramp, Wheelchair, Materials 0 Ground floor 0 Assistant, team teaching … 0 Integrated lesson 0 Teachers: 0 Specialty 0 helpful 20
    21. 21. Walk Stop 21
    22. 22. 22
    23. 23. Higher Education Doctorate Master’s Degree Research Program Bachelor’s Degree - 3 years - Based on research - 2 years - Lectures + guided research methods 65% of HS graduates continue their study. Of these over 70% enroll in private colleges and universities - 4 years - Lectures + seminar group methods Junior College 23
    24. 24. Criteria to Graduate 0 Enough credits required (Vary) 0 Thesis (for Bachelor and Master’s degree) 0 Dissertation with publications for Ph. D (vary) 24
    25. 25. Conclusion 0 Education system: 6 + 3 + 3 + 4 0 Elementary to lower secondary levels are compulsory 0 Special Needs Education is well promoted 0 Social promotion system is employed 0 Sever university exam is implemented. 0 Higher education: seminar group, research-guided and research-based methods plus lectures “ Doing a research is a torch for effective and efficient working” 25
    26. 26. References: 0 National Association of School Psychologists: Recommendation for Receiving School 0 http://www.education-in-japan.info/sub1.htm#sub101 0 UNESCO (international Bureau of Education), Inclusive Education (2007) 0 Inclusive and Supportive Education Congress (Aug 2005) 0 Statistics on Education for Children with Disability in Japan (2006) 0 Ochiai, T. Aiming at Inclusive Education by Five Team Teaching Group, Hiroshima University, Japan 26
    27. 27. 27

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