Chapter 3_Historical and Philosophical Foundations_World Roots


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  • indoctrinate |ɪnˈdɒktrɪneɪt|verb [ with obj. ]teach (a person or group) to accept a set of beliefs uncritically
  • disengage |ˌdɪsɪnˈgeɪdʒ, ˌdɪsɛn-|verb1 [ with obj. ] separate or release (someone or something) from something to which they are attached or connected 2. remove
  • Ask students to read the last paragraph at page 64 about the critic on examination. Ask them how they think of it and which they support?
  • Judaism, Christianity and Islam worship their God in one.
  • Chapter 3_Historical and Philosophical Foundations_World Roots

    1. 1. Presented by Mr. Soeung Sopha Part 2: Historical and Philosophical Foundations
    2. 2.  Cultural transmission:  Transmitted orally via songs and stories  By enculturation, children learn the group’s language and skills and assimilate its moral and religious values.  Moral code:  Spreading through dancing, music and dramatic acting (acceptable behavior and taboos)  Oral tradition:  Storytelling and recited on oral tradition (this remain crucial for education today)
    3. 3.   Chinese civilization --- education’s evolution. Chinese were ethnocentric (foreigners were called barbarians---ignored science, technology and other culture --- foreign exploitation) How can you provide students with an appreciation for cultural and scientific achievement in the past and openness to social and technological change?  What is the relationship btw cultural community and changes?  How can you promote one to other? 
    4. 4.   More concerned on living here and now 3rd century:  Political turmoil --- social upheaval
    5. 5.  Legalism (associated with the scholar – Shih Huang Ti) was imperial official philosophy  Advocated a high disciplined authoritarian govt.  Fearing dissent, Legalists imposed strict to Censorship Taoism and Confucianism.  The purpose of education was imposed their definition of Chinese culture through indoctrination
    6. 6. Presented alternative to Legalism  Search to find the path to the true reality often hidden by appearances (unseen, underlying, unifying force)  Unlike Legalists, Taoism: Stop control people and events, go with the stream of life and live simply and spontaneously.  Purpose of education: is to encourage the self-reflection needed to find one’s true self and become Free control of others 
    7. 7.   To establish the condition for ethical society than to seek to answer unanswerable questions (unlike western philosophers focused on theoretical and metaphysical issues) Educational philosophy, Confucius constructed based on ethical hierarchy of responsibilities that began from emperor to touching everyone in society (unlike Legalism - controlled and Taoism – politically disengaged)
    8. 8.  Education emphasized civility – polite, correct and proper behavior      Model (teachers needed to personalize) Everyone observed that standard People performed in the same way Respect each other based on the designated ranks Established academy for govt. official      High standard admission—high motivated person Rules for classroom management (high expectation) Teachers’ behavior (distance but approachable) Constructive feedback Selected great books for its curriculum
    9. 9.  Comprehensive examination was created to assess student’s competence  Recalling memorized information  Teacher had to teach to the test  ???   Alternative thinking (Discussion and/or interpretation) was regarded as a THREAT and INEFFICIENT use of time China, Singapore, Japan, South Korea, UK and France and some others in Asia required national test
    10. 10.     Became a highly organized and centralized political colossus – one of the world’s earliest civilizations. Knowledge and value were seen as reflecting orderly, unchanging and eternal cosmos. The educational system reinforced the elite high status and power by marking the priestly elite guardians of state culture. Religious controlled much formal education.
    11. 11.     To administer and defend the country, Egyptians studied civil administration. Obsession with mummification led them to study medicine, anatomy and embalming. They created writing system. Teaching of writing and reading became an important feature of schooling through out the countries
    12. 12. Needed an educated bureaucracy to administer the country and to collect taxes.  Built temple and court school to train scribes/priests in writing and reading.  Boy studied literature for their professions.  Special advanced schools (govt. staff, physician)  Scribal schools (learned to write scripts)  Advanced students learned mathematics, astronomy, religions, poetry, literature, medicine, and architecture.  Teachers dictated, students chant 
    13. 13.        American edu. Is deeply rooted in the Judeo-Christian tradition (esp. Jewish people) Purpose of edu is to instill the young in their cultural tradition via carefully designed process of transmitting religious beliefs and ritual from generation to the next. Shaped the behavior based on the group norms. Learning was a life-long process Learn to how to pray, to know, to observe and to identify Parents responsible for children’s education Specialized teachers taught at school but did not replace the parents’ role.