indoctrinate |ɪnˈdɒktrɪneɪt|verb [ with obj. ]teach (a person or group) to accept a set of beliefs uncritically
disengage |ˌdɪsɪnˈgeɪdʒ, ˌdɪsɛn-|verb1 [ with obj. ] separate or release (someone or something) from something to which they are attached or connected 2. remove
Ask students to read the last paragraph at page 64 about the critic on examination. Ask them how they think of it and which they support?
Judaism, Christianity and Islam worship their God in one.
Chapter 3_Historical and Philosophical Foundations_World Roots
Mr. Soeung Sopha
Historical and Philosophical
Transmitted orally via songs and stories
By enculturation, children learn the group’s language
and skills and assimilate its moral and religious values.
Spreading through dancing, music and dramatic
acting (acceptable behavior and taboos)
Storytelling and recited on oral tradition (this remain
crucial for education today)
Chinese civilization --- education’s evolution.
Chinese were ethnocentric (foreigners were
called barbarians---ignored science,
technology and other culture --- foreign
How can you provide students with an appreciation for
cultural and scientific achievement in the past and
openness to social and technological change?
What is the relationship btw cultural community and
How can you promote one to other?
More concerned on
living here and now
Political turmoil ---
Legalism (associated with the scholar – Shih
Huang Ti) was imperial official philosophy
Advocated a high disciplined authoritarian govt.
Fearing dissent, Legalists imposed strict to
Censorship Taoism and Confucianism.
The purpose of education was imposed their
definition of Chinese culture through
Presented alternative to Legalism
Search to find the path to the true reality
often hidden by appearances (unseen,
underlying, unifying force)
Unlike Legalists, Taoism: Stop control
people and events, go with the stream of life
and live simply and spontaneously.
Purpose of education: is to encourage the
self-reflection needed to find one’s true self
and become Free control of others
To establish the condition for ethical society
than to seek to answer unanswerable
questions (unlike western philosophers focused
on theoretical and metaphysical issues)
Educational philosophy, Confucius
constructed based on ethical hierarchy of
responsibilities that began from emperor to
touching everyone in society (unlike Legalism
- controlled and Taoism – politically
Education emphasized civility – polite, correct and
Model (teachers needed to personalize)
Everyone observed that standard
People performed in the same way
Respect each other based on the designated ranks
Established academy for govt. official
High standard admission—high motivated person
Rules for classroom management (high expectation)
Teachers’ behavior (distance but approachable)
Selected great books for its curriculum
Comprehensive examination was created to
assess student’s competence
Recalling memorized information
Teacher had to teach to the test
Alternative thinking (Discussion and/or interpretation) was
regarded as a THREAT and INEFFICIENT use of time
China, Singapore, Japan, South Korea, UK and France
and some others in Asia required national test
Became a highly organized and centralized
political colossus – one of the world’s earliest
Knowledge and value were seen as reflecting
orderly, unchanging and eternal cosmos.
The educational system reinforced the elite
high status and power by marking the priestly
elite guardians of state culture.
Religious controlled much formal education.
To administer and defend the country,
Egyptians studied civil administration.
Obsession with mummification led them to
study medicine, anatomy and embalming.
They created writing system.
Teaching of writing and reading became an
important feature of schooling through out
Needed an educated bureaucracy to administer
the country and to collect taxes.
Built temple and court school to train
scribes/priests in writing and reading.
Boy studied literature for their professions.
Special advanced schools (govt. staff, physician)
Scribal schools (learned to write scripts)
Advanced students learned mathematics,
astronomy, religions, poetry, literature,
medicine, and architecture.
Teachers dictated, students chant
American edu. Is deeply rooted in the Judeo-Christian
tradition (esp. Jewish people)
Purpose of edu is to instill the young in their cultural
tradition via carefully designed process of
transmitting religious beliefs and ritual from
generation to the next.
Shaped the behavior based on the group norms.
Learning was a life-long process
Learn to how to pray, to know, to observe and to
Parents responsible for children’s education
Specialized teachers taught at school but did not
replace the parents’ role.