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Chapter 3_Reviewing the Literature
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Chapter 3_Reviewing the Literature


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  • Pitfall (n): hidden or unsuspected danger
  • Ask students to read page 33 – 34 for detail about books and journal
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    • 1. Chapter 3: Reviewing the Literature Presented by Mr. Soeung Sopha
    • 2. Mind-mapping for the Chapter 1- Place of literature review (LR) in research  Bring clarity and focus to your research;  Improve your methodology  Broaden your knowledge base in your research area;  Contextualize your findings 2- Procedure for reviewing the literature (L)  Search for existing L;  Review the L selected  Develop a theoretical framework  Develop a conceptual framework 2
    • 3. What are the functions of LR?  It provides a theoretical background to your study.  It helps you to refine your research methodology.  You are able to show how your findings have contributed to existing body of knowledge in your profession.  It enable you to contextualize your findings. 3
    • 4. What can LR help you?  Bring clarity and focus to your research;  Improve your methodology;  Broaden your knowledge base in your research area; and  Contextualize your findings 4
    • 5. 1.1 Bring Clarity & Focus  LR involves a paradox. But,  You cannot search without some idea of problem you wish to investigate  LR shapes your research problem  LR helps you to understand the subject area better  LR helps you to conceptualize your research problem clearly and precisely  LR help you to understand the relationship btw your research problem and the body of knowledge in the area 5
    • 6. 1.2 Improve your Methodology Doing LR helps you to: Be familiar with the methodologies have been used; Learn if anyone has used similar procedures or methods you are proposing; See if any procedures or methods have worked well; See if there have been any problems others faced; and Be aware of pitfall and other limitations. LR brings you a better reason to select a methodology that leads you to get valid answers for your research question. 6
    • 7. 1.3 Broaden your Knowledge  You have to widely read around the subject area  You will know what others have found;  You will learn what theories have been put forward;  You are able to find what gap exists in the relevant body of knowledge.  LR helps you to understand how your findings fit into the existing body of knowledge  You are supposed to be an expert in your area of study 7
    • 8. 1.4 Conceptualize your Findings Questions you have to answer: How do your research questions compare with what others have found? What contribution have you been able to make to the existing body of knowledge? How are your findings different? **** it is crucial to place your findings in the context of what is already known in your field. 8
    • 9. Procedures for Reviewing L  Search for existing L;  Review the L selected  Develop a theoretical framework  Develop a conceptual framework 9
    • 10. 2.2 Searching for Existing L  Have massive idea of the subject area  Compile bibliography for this area  Books (check in library)  Journals (ERIC for Abstracts of articles, ….)  Have keywords option (author/key, title/key, ..)  Use some of electronic database available to you 10
    • 11. 2.2 Review the L. Selected  Books and articles are already selected  Read them critically by putting together themes and issues are associated.  In case you have no framework, use separate sheets of paper to write theme and slot the findings  Keep on slotting the information where it logically belong under the theme 11
    • 12. L. Selected (con.)  Read by following these aspects:  Note where the knowledge relevant to yours  Note the theories put forward, criticism and their bias, methodology adopted (study design, sample size, its characteristics, measurement procedure ..)  Examine to what extent the findings can be generalized  Note where there are significant differences of opinion among researchers; give your opinion about the validity of these differences  Ascertain the area in which little or nothing known (gaps) 12
    • 13. 2.3 Develop a Theoretical Framework  Review literature never ends but you’ve to stop due to time constrain  As you review, you discover the root of the problem you wish to investigate  Information getting from books, journal or others have to be sorted out based on:  Themes  Theories  Agreement and disagreement of the researchers 13
    • 14. Theoretical Framework (con.)  Literatures read have direct and indirect bearing on your research topic.  Use these aspects to develop theoretical framework  “Until you go through L, you cannot develop a theoretical framework and until you have develop a theoretical framework, you cannot effectively review L.”  Literature deal with 2 types of information:  Universal; and  More specific 14
    • 15. 2.4 Develop a Conceptual Framework  It stems from the theoretical framework  By concentrating on one section of the theoretical framework, it becomes the basic of your study/inquiry.  What is Conceptual Framework?  It is the basic of your research problem 15
    • 16. Writing LR  LR have to functions:  Provide theoretical framework  Contextualizing your finding  1st Function:     Identify and describe various theories relevant Specify the gaps Highlight the recent advances in the area Current trend and so on  2nd Function:  Integrate your result by comparing the two for confirmation and/or contradiction 16