Chapter 2_The Research Process_A Quick Glance

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Chapter 2_The Research Process_A Quick Glance

  1. 1. The Research Process: A Quick Glance Chapter 2: Presented by Mr. Soeung Sopha 1
  2. 2. 2 Content  Quantitative vs. Qualitative  Eight Steps of the Research  Summary
  3. 3. 3 Quantitative VS. Qualitative  Quantitative:  Qualitative:  To quantify extent variation in phenomenon ……..  To describe variation in a phenomenon …..  Emphasis on greater sample size  Fewer cases  Narrow Working with number  Cover multiple issues Working with words
  4. 4. 4 Eight Steps  Step 1: Formulating a research problem  Step 2: Conceptualizing a research design  Step 3: Constructing an instrument for data collection  Step 4: Selecting a sample  Step 5: Writing a research proposal  Step 6: Collecting data  Step 7: Processing data  Step 8: Writing a research report
  5. 5. 5 Step 1: Formulating R. Problem  First and most important step  Helps to identify your destination (telling the readers WHAT you intend to do)  All steps are influent from how you formulate your research problem  Think of:      What you want to find out about Financial resource Time available Expertise and knowledge Any gap in your knowledge  Statistical tools  Computer and software
  6. 6. 6 Step 2: Conceptualizing  Telling HOW to answer to your research questions  Identify:  What is already know and is not known  Past error and limitation  What is found and how it is found  Design your research based on logistical arrangement:      Measurement procedure Sampling strategy Frame of analysis Time frame Research design adopted  You must have strong reasons for selecting a particular design
  7. 7. Step 3: Constructing an Instrument for Data Collection  Research tools or Research Instrument?  Decide how you are going to collect  Types of Data:  Primary Data  Secondary Data  Space for coding  Validity and Reliability perspectives  Pre-testing (not with your samples) 7
  8. 8. 8 Step 4: Selecting a Sample  Sample selection is important  Sample VS. Population  Two principals for sampling:  Avoidance bias  Attainment of maximum exact amount of money spent  †here are three categories for sampling design:  Random/probability sampling  Non-random/probability sampling  Mix-sampling design
  9. 9. - Sample size or design - Data-processing - Outline chapters for your report - Study’s problems & Limitation - Time frame 9 Step 5: Writing a Research Proposal - Objectives - Hypothesis - Study design - Setting for study - Instruments  After you‘ve done the previous, it’s time for you to write your Research Proposal (put all together to Research provide adequate information). To detail  For whom?  What it tell?  Research problem(s)  How you plan to investigate the operational plan Proposal - What you are proposing to do - How you plan to proceed - Why you selected the proposed strategy  Different institution prefers different style or format
  10. 10. 10 Step 6: Collecting Data  This is is a step require you to go to your field of study  Follow your plan  Follow ethical issues
  11. 11. 11 Step 7: Processing Data  It refers to the way you analyze the information you collected:  Type of information  Descriptive, quantitative, qualitative ….  The way you want to communicate your findings to your readers  Your data will be analyzed manually or by a computer
  12. 12. 12 Step 8: Writing a Research Report  It is the LAST step in the research  It is the most difficult step  It will inform the world on:  What you have done  What you have discovered  What conclusions you have drawn *** if you are clear with your process, you will be clear about the way you want to write. *** Report must be written in an academic style Research Report
  13. 13. 13 Summary  How many steps do you have to follow when you wish to conduct a research?  Can you briefly tell the class about each step?

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