RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
CHAPTER 1
RESEARCH: A WAY OF
THINKING
Takeo Province

Presented by Mr. Soeung
Sopha
Content
2

1- Definitions
2- Applications of research
3- What you mean by doing a research
4- Characteristics of research
...
1- Definitions
3







Research is a way of thinking: examining
critically the various aspects of your
professional wo...
Definitions (con.)
4





Research is structured inquiry that utilizes
acceptable scientific methodology to solve
proble...
Examples:
5



If you were a school principal in one language
school.
 How

many students are coming everyday?
 Why do ...
2- Applications of Research
6






Most research is applied research.
Methods and procedures developed by
research met...
Four-considered perspectives:
7

A question that can be raised about any profession
can be considered from 4 different per...
3- What You Mean?
8



You’re implying that the process:
 Is

being undertaken within a framework of a set of
Philosophi...
3-1 Philosophy
9



May stem from one of several paradigms and
approaches in research – qualitative,
quantitative … - the...
3.2 Validity and Reliability
10



Validity: aspect of the research process.
 It

ensures that correct procedures have b...
3.3 Unbiased and Objective
11

Each step is done in unbiased manner;
 Each conclusion is drawn to the best of your
abilit...
4- Characteristics of Research
12

By Mr. Soeung Sopha
5- Types of Research
13

By Mr. Soeung Sopha
5.1 Application
14





Pure Research is concerned with
development, examination, verification and
refinement of researc...
5.2 Objectives
15





describe
Descriptive Research: to
systematically a situation, problem,
phenomenon, … or to provid...
Objectives (con.)
16

Why
Explanatory Research: to clarify and How
there is a relationship between two aspects of a
situat...
5.3 Inquiry Mode
17

Aim: exploration, confirmation or
quantification

Use of
finding:
policy
formulation
or process
under...
6- Paradigms of Research
18







There are two main paradigms (in this book)
The research purpose should determine th...
Summary
19









What is Research? To you, what do you think
about a “reliable research”?
What do you understand wh...
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Chapter 1_Research A Way of Thinking

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 1 RESEARCH: A WAY OF THINKING Takeo Province Presented by Mr. Soeung Sopha
  2. 2. Content 2 1- Definitions 2- Applications of research 3- What you mean by doing a research 4- Characteristics of research 5- Types of research 6- Paradigms of research By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  3. 3. 1- Definitions 3    Research is a way of thinking: examining critically the various aspects of your professional works using a particular procedure; developing and testing new theories. Research is a habit of questioning what you do, and a systematic examination to find answers. By Mr. Soeung Sopha Research is one of the ways to find answers to
  4. 4. Definitions (con.) 4   Research is structured inquiry that utilizes acceptable scientific methodology to solve problems and to create new knowledge that is generally applicable (Grinnell, 1993: 3) Burns (1994:2) defines research as a systematic investigation to find answers to a problem. By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  5. 5. Examples: 5  If you were a school principal in one language school.  How many students are coming everyday?  Why do they choose my school while others don’t?  What program(s) do majority of students like?  And others  Refer to the books for more examples By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  6. 6. 2- Applications of Research 6    Most research is applied research. Methods and procedures developed by research methodologists are used to increase understanding and to advance the professional knowledge. The validity of your findings entirely depends upon the soundness of the research methodology adopted. By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  7. 7. Four-considered perspectives: 7 A question that can be raised about any profession can be considered from 4 different perspectives: 1- the service provider; 2- the service administrator, manager and/or planner 3- the service consumer; and 4- the professional. * The viewpoint of these, please refer to page 5 (Fig By Mr. Soeung Sopha 1.1)
  8. 8. 3- What You Mean? 8  You’re implying that the process:  Is being undertaken within a framework of a set of Philosophies.  Uses procedures, methods and techniques that have been tested for their: Validities and Reliabilities.  Is designed to be: Unbiased and Objective. By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  9. 9. 3-1 Philosophy 9  May stem from one of several paradigms and approaches in research – qualitative, quantitative … - the academic discipline in which you have been trained. By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  10. 10. 3.2 Validity and Reliability 10  Validity: aspect of the research process.  It ensures that correct procedures have been applied for find the answers to your question(s).  Reliability: the quality of a measurement procedure that provides repeatability and accuracy. By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  11. 11. 3.3 Unbiased and Objective 11 Each step is done in unbiased manner;  Each conclusion is drawn to the best of your ability without introducing your own vested interest. Subjective vs. Biased  Subjectivity: your way of thinking that is conditioned by your educational background By Mr. Soeung Sopha …. 
  12. 12. 4- Characteristics of Research 12 By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  13. 13. 5- Types of Research 13 By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  14. 14. 5.1 Application 14   Pure Research is concerned with development, examination, verification and refinement of research methods, procedures, techniques and tools that form the body of the research. Applied Research: methods, techniques … can be applied to gather information from various aspects so that information collected can be used for policy, administration… and the enhancement By Mr. Soeung Sopha of understanding of a phenomenon.
  15. 15. 5.2 Objectives 15   describe Descriptive Research: to systematically a situation, problem, phenomenon, … or to provide information bout living conditions or to describe attitudes toward an issue. relationship/association/interdependenc Correlative Research: to discover or e establish the existence of By aspects between two or more Mr. Soeung Sophaof a situation.
  16. 16. Objectives (con.) 16 Why Explanatory Research: to clarify and How there is a relationship between two aspects of a situation or a phenomenon.  Exploratory Research: to explore an area where little is known or to investigate the possibilities of a By Mr. Soeung Sopha particular research study. 
  17. 17. 5.3 Inquiry Mode 17 Aim: exploration, confirmation or quantification Use of finding: policy formulation or process understandin g By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  18. 18. 6- Paradigms of Research 18    There are two main paradigms (in this book) The research purpose should determine the mode of inquiry, hence the paradigm. These two are Quantitative and Qualitative research. By Mr. Soeung Sopha
  19. 19. Summary 19     What is Research? To you, what do you think about a “reliable research”? What do you understand when a person is telling you that s/he is conducting a research? What are the characteristics of research? Which ones do you think are the most important when conducting a research? How many types of research have you learned? By Mr. Soeung Sopha

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