magnetostriction Magnetostriction is a property of ferromagnetic materials that causes them to change their shape or dimensions during the process of magnetization. The variation of material's magnetization due to the applied magnetic field changes the magnetostrictive strain until reaching its saturation value, λ.
Basic element of the actuators consist of: The coil that encloses the magnetostrictive rod. Magnetic poles that conduct the flux to the rod. The DC flux from the permanent magnet to rod, Th air gap that allows the rod to expand and contract freely. The head and tail mass or the base , and spring system and provided to give proper preload to the rod.
Light can modulated and transmitted over large distance.
An optical fiber consists of a core, cladding, and a buffer (a protective outer coating), in which the cladding guides the light along the core by using the method of total internal reflection. The core and the cladding (which has a lower-refractive-index) are usually made of high-quality silica glass.