Fabrication of AGV
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Fabrication of AGV

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Automation in material handling system

Automation in material handling system

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Fabrication of AGV Presentation Transcript

  • 1. MINI PROJECT REPORT
    FABRICATION OF AN AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLEPresented by:ARVIND.S.ASOORAJ.V.RANKITHA SHARMA ALKA MOHAN PHILIPVISHNU MURALI MENON
  • 2. INTRODUCTION
    Automated industrial guided vehicle is a robot
    It
    delivers the materials from the supply area to the technician automatically.
    Is faster and more efficient.
    Can be accessed wirelessly, a proximity detector has been added which causes the robot to stop as long as there is an obstacle in its way, thus avoiding accidents.
  • 3. Model Overview
    Automation in material handling system is the major attractions of the project .
    Electrical and electronics systems are embedded in this unit to achieve automation.
    This type is used mainly in mass production system to increase the rate of production and reduce labour cost.
  • 4. SYSTEMS
    • MECHANICAL
    • 5. Chassis & Steering
    • 6. ELECTRICAL
    • 7. Motor Power
    • 8. ELECTRONICS
    • 9. Control Unit
    • 10. COMPUTER PROGRAM
    • 11. Path Planning
  • BLOCK DIAGRAM
    CENTRAL COMPUTER
    PROGRAM INSTRUCTION
    SIGNAL
    RADIO TRANSMITTER
    BRIDGE
    MICRO CONTROLLER
    MOTOR DRIVER
    MOTOR
    RECEIVER
  • 12. COMPUTER PROGRAM
    • Language Used: Python
    • 13. Works under any OS
    • 14. Open source
    • BRIDGE
    • 15. Converts USB Protocol to UART Protocol
    • 16. UART Protocol is standard for Microcontroller
    • 17. TRANSMITTER:
    • 18. Electronic device that transmit a electronic signal wirelessly
    • 19. RECIEVER
    • 20. Electronic device that receives a wireless signal
    • MICROCONTROLLER:
    Atmega 16 microcontroller is used.
    • Medium cost
    • 21. High speed grades 0 - 16 MHz
    • 22. High-performance
    • 23. operating voltage 4.5V to 5.5V
    • 24. UART(Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter)
    • 25. Crystal oscillation speed:16 Mhz
    • Technical speciphication
    Transmission frequency: 433Mhz (Free License)
    Transmission speed:1200 baud
    Maximum transmission range:3 m indoors 10m outdoors.
    Maximum voltage:5 V
  • 26. ATmega16 Pin-out diagram.
  • 27.
    • MOTOR DRIVER:
    • 28. Controls motor using Logical signal from the microcontroller
    • 29. Controls motor speed using Pulse width modulation
    • 30. Electronically commands the motor to go forward, reverse, brake, and coast.
  • Technical specification of l293D
    Maximum logic voltage:5.5v
    Minimum logical:4.5v
    Maximum supply voltage:36v
    Maximum supplied current: 600mA/channel
    No of channel:2
  • 31.
    • MOTOR:
    • 32. Actuator that converts electrical signal to rotational motion
    • 33. Contrary to usual belief it is an open loop control, A new technology of Back Emf interference is used to approximate a closed loop
    • Motor specification
    Speed:200 rpm
    Rated voltage:12v
    No load current:60 mA
    Full load current:500 mA
    Stall current:580 mA
    Back emf interference: range of 300 to 500 uA
    Torque:2 kg cm
  • 34. Movement mechanism
    The robot consider to be in origin
    It can move through the lines with the box enclosed by the lines assumed to be machines.
    By using geometry path can be calculated by the central computer which is sent wirelessly to the AGV.
  • 35. CHASIS DESIGN
    • Incorporate design for optimal use in a factory environment.
    • 36. Support for both differential steering and Ackermann mechanism.
    • 37. Model supports a static load of 12.6 kg of load and 6.3 kg of dynamic load and approximately 1.26 kg of impact load.
    • 38. Material used Al alloy powder coated designed in catia with help of a friend.
    • Technical specification of chassis
    breadth:105mm
    Length:194mm
    Hight:42mm
    Wheel diameter:70mm
    Wheel thickness:20mm
    Wheel base:142mm
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. The microcontroller receives the path from the computer after the following considerations
    The path is not currently in use by other AGV
    The path does not cross the lines being used by other AGV.
    The path is under maintenance
  • 43.
  • 44.
    • Formulas used for straight line motion
    For straight line motion between 𝒙𝟏,𝒚𝟏 and 𝒙𝟐,𝒚𝟐
    𝑚1=𝑥2−𝑥1𝑦2−𝑦1
    For straight line between 𝒙𝟐,𝒚𝟐 and 𝒙𝟑,𝒚𝟑
    𝑚2=𝑥3−𝑥2𝑦3−𝑦2
    Formula for taking a turn
    tanø = (𝑚2−𝑚11+𝑚1𝑚2) 𝑚2>𝑚1
    ø = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1(𝑚2−𝑚11+𝑚1𝑚2)
     
  • 45.
  • 46. Formula for calculating distance
    𝑋2−𝑋12+𝑌2−𝑌12
     
  • 47. Different Paths to go to destination
  • 48. r r r r r r r u u u u
    Instead of having 6 rights at 4 ups, imagine we start with 10 rights (r rrrrrrrr r).
    Clearly this won't do: we need to change 4 of those rights into ups. How many ways can we pick 4 rights to change?
    10!/6!4!=210
  • 49. STEERING MECHANISM
    SPINNING STEERING
    Small radius turning
    Large radius turning
  • 50.
    • Project Cost
    Microprocessor Board: 1100Rs
    Motor: 350Rs
    Microprocessor: 210Rs
    Chassis Outsource: 400
    Transmitter-Reciever Pair: 500Rs
    Motor Driver: 50Rs
    Tyres: 70Rs
    Bridge: 900Rs
    Battery: Lead-Acid: 450Rs, LiPo: 900Rs
  • 51. CONCLUSION
    The AGV is an productivity increasing feature in a factory that has the following advantages
    1. Speed of delivery
    2. Flexibility of path
    3. Adaptive to changes in factory layouts
    4. Central control
    5. Reduction in labour cost
    6. Reduction in running cost compared to conveyer systems
    7. Ability to add sensors to detect the payload conditions
  • 52. DISADVANTAGES
    1. Should be recharged periodically
    2. Will stop delivery when the AGV is forced off the path.
    3. High Initial cost
  • 53. THANK YOU