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MINI PROJECT REPORT FABRICATION OF AN AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLEPresented by:ARVIND.S.ASOORAJ.V.RANKITHA SHARMA ALKA MOHAN PHILIPVISHNU MURALI MENON
INTRODUCTION Automated industrial guided vehicle is a robot It delivers the materials from the supply area to the technician automatically. Is faster and more efficient. Can be accessed wirelessly, a proximity detector has been added which causes the robot to stop as long as there is an obstacle in its way, thus avoiding accidents.
Model Overview Automation in material handling system is the major attractions of the project . Electrical and electronics systems are embedded in this unit to achieve automation. This type is used mainly in mass production system to increase the rate of production and reduce labour cost.
Transmission frequency: 433Mhz (Free License) Transmission speed:1200 baud Maximum transmission range:3 m indoors 10m outdoors. Maximum voltage:5 V
ATmega16 Pin-out diagram.
Controls motor using Logical signal from the microcontroller
Controls motor speed using Pulse width modulation
Electronically commands the motor to go forward, reverse, brake, and coast.
Technical specification of l293D Maximum logic voltage:5.5v Minimum logical:4.5v Maximum supply voltage:36v Maximum supplied current: 600mA/channel No of channel:2
Actuator that converts electrical signal to rotational motion
Contrary to usual belief it is an open loop control, A new technology of Back Emf interference is used to approximate a closed loop
Speed:200 rpm Rated voltage:12v No load current:60 mA Full load current:500 mA Stall current:580 mA Back emf interference: range of 300 to 500 uA Torque:2 kg cm
Movement mechanism The robot consider to be in origin It can move through the lines with the box enclosed by the lines assumed to be machines. By using geometry path can be calculated by the central computer which is sent wirelessly to the AGV.
Incorporate design for optimal use in a factory environment.
Support for both differential steering and Ackermann mechanism.
Model supports a static load of 12.6 kg of load and 6.3 kg of dynamic load and approximately 1.26 kg of impact load.
Material used Al alloy powder coated designed in catia with help of a friend.
The microcontroller receives the path from the computer after the following considerations The path is not currently in use by other AGV The path does not cross the lines being used by other AGV. The path is under maintenance
Formulas used for straight line motion
For straight line motion between 𝒙𝟏,𝒚𝟏 and 𝒙𝟐,𝒚𝟐 𝑚1=𝑥2−𝑥1𝑦2−𝑦1 For straight line between 𝒙𝟐,𝒚𝟐 and 𝒙𝟑,𝒚𝟑 𝑚2=𝑥3−𝑥2𝑦3−𝑦2 Formula for taking a turn tanø = (𝑚2−𝑚11+𝑚1𝑚2) 𝑚2>𝑚1 ø = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1(𝑚2−𝑚11+𝑚1𝑚2)
Formula for calculating distance 𝑋2−𝑋12+𝑌2−𝑌12
Different Paths to go to destination
r r r r r r r u u u u Instead of having 6 rights at 4 ups, imagine we start with 10 rights (r rrrrrrrr r). Clearly this won't do: we need to change 4 of those rights into ups. How many ways can we pick 4 rights to change? 10!/6!4!=210
STEERING MECHANISM SPINNING STEERING Small radius turning Large radius turning
CONCLUSION The AGV is an productivity increasing feature in a factory that has the following advantages 1. Speed of delivery 2. Flexibility of path 3. Adaptive to changes in factory layouts 4. Central control 5. Reduction in labour cost 6. Reduction in running cost compared to conveyer systems 7. Ability to add sensors to detect the payload conditions
DISADVANTAGES 1. Should be recharged periodically 2. Will stop delivery when the AGV is forced off the path. 3. High Initial cost