SENSORS A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a Mercury in glass thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A Thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against known standards
What is sensor? Non-electrical physical quantity: temperature , sound or light sensors Electrical signal
TYPES OF SENSORS
APPLICATION OF SENSORS
Electrical and electronicsetc…
It is a technology, based on computer applications, intended to study the model of this real world system by numerical evaluation software.
It is carried out to evaluate the performance of a system, product or process before it physically built or implemented to imitate or predict the behavior of manufacturing system.
Types of simulation Static or dynamic Continuous or discrete Deterministic or stochastic
Static or dynamic simulation
In static simulation time does not have a role. In dynamic simulation time have a role. The most of the manufacturing system are time dependent are hence dynamic
Continuous or discrete simulation
System in which continuously varies with time. Eg: refinery, themal power plant and plate glass manufacturing where production is continuous but may fluctuate over time. An automotive assembly plant is more or less a continuous system. A job shop where batch quantity may vary from one to many is a discrete manufacturing plant Eg: machine tool, motor, pumps etc Mixed continuous –discrete system: combination of both
DITERMINISTIC OR STOCHASTIC
System which have no random input is are DETERMINSTIC.
A system which have random input is are STOCHASTIC .
EG: A design bureau , a rapid prototyping shop.
SIMULATION METHODOLOGY GENERAL PURPOSE SIMULATION LANGUAGES SIMULATION LANGUAGES HIGH LEVEL SIMULATOR
GENERAL PURPOSE LANGUAGES
The programs can be written in the high level languages like FORTRAN , C. This approach was popular when simulation languages is not available. The advantage of this approach is the opportunity to design the system to specific application in the customized manner. Disadvantage: very long, time consuming, error prone
General Purpose Simulation System(GPSS) is one language mainly used for simulation. Mostly declarative languages designed for discrete event simulation and system modeling. It consist of Set of blocks which includes Generators , queues , routers ,data collectors , timing and computational nodes. Includes integers ,real numbers ,strings and records. SIMSCRIPT, SLAM, SIMAN…were latest languages These are very flexible to simulate variety of system
HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES
In addition to above mentioned type ,this is more powerful to graphics user interface, menu and dialog boxes. Standard constructs enable the user to model a system quickly . This make model creation faster. Facility for dynamic graphic animation gives the user to visualize the actual working of the system.
Simulation software packages
Advantages of simulation Inexpensive Effective Faster Reduce error Evaluation of performance Scheduling Reduce time to market
APPLICATION OF SIMULATION safety engineering Testing scientific modeling Automotive industry Aero space Civil design