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- 1. POWER EFFICIENT CHANNELIZER FOR SOFTWARE DEFINED RADIO USING VLSI
- 2. Overview Objective Proposed design of our Basic architecture of channelizer channelizer Architecture of our design CIC filter Simulation results Fast Fourier transform Synthesis results What is software defined radio Conclusion Field programmable gate array Reference
- 3. objective The objective of our project is to design a power efficient channelizer for software defined radio. We have proposed a model of increased stage CIC filter and FFT for channelizer. For designing model sim altera is used for simulation purpose and xilinz ISE is used for synthesis.
- 4. Basic architecture of channelizer Discrete data's Sequential Integrator Decimator 8 point FFT combination CIC FILTER BLOCK
- 5. Cascaded Integrator-Comb (CIC) Filter Used to achieve arbitrary and large sample rate changes in digital systems. Used as decimation or interpolation filters. Efficiently implemented without multipliers, utilizing only adders and subtractors.
- 6. Single CIC filter block diagram Z^-1 Z^M + - + + R + + integrator decimator comb filter
- 7. Features 1-32-bit input data width. 1-8 cascaded stages. 1-4 cycles differential delay. Run-time programmable for both decimation and interpolation.
- 8. Cont… 2-16,384 decimation and interpolation sampling rate factor. Multi-channel (up to 4 channels) support for both decimation and interpolation. Fully synchronous, single-clock design.
- 9. Integrator An integrator is a single-pole IIR filter . with a unity feedback coefficient. operating at a higher sampling rate, fS.
- 10. Comb filter A comb is a FIR filter . with M unity differential delays . operating at a lower sampling rate.
- 11. Fast Fourier transform An efficient algorithm to compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and its inverse. An FFT computes the DFT and produces exactly the same result as evaluating the DFT. Difference is that an FFT is much faster. DFT of N points takes O(N 2) arithmetical operations, FFT take only O(N log N) operations.
- 12. What is Software Defined Radio? A collection of hardware and software technologies. Radio in which some or all of the physical layer functions are software defined. Radio’s operating functions are implemented through modifiable software or firmware . Operating on programmable processing technologies.
- 13. Benefits of SDR For Radio Equipment Manufacturers and System Integrators. For Radio Service Providers. For End Users - from business travelers to soldiers on the battlefield.
- 14. Field programmable gate array An integrated circuit designed to be configured by the customer or designer after manufacturing. Configuration is generally specified using a hardware description language (HDL). Contain programmable logic components called "logic blocks“. Hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be "wired together“.
- 15. FPGA design and programming The HDL form is suited to work with large structures . It's possible to just specify numerically rather than having to draw every piece by hand. Electronic design automation tool is used and technology- mapped netlist is generated. The netlist can then be fitted to the actual FPGA architecture using a process called place-and-route.
- 16. Conti… The user will validate the map, place and route results Once the design and validation process is complete The binary file generated is used to reconfigure the FPGA.
- 17. Proposed design of channelizer 5 stage integrator and 5 stage comb filter with one decimator . To increase efficiency totally there are 8 complete stages of CIC. An 8 point FFT block.
- 18. Architecture of our design Deci val data clk xin x0 out0 Stage 1 reset x1 out1 Stage 2 Stage 3 x2 x1 out2 x3 out3 Stage 4 8 point FFT Stage 5 Stage 6 Stage 7 x7 out7 Stage 8 CIC FILTER BLOCK
- 19. Individual CIC filter of our design I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 R C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Where I1,I2,I3,I4,I5 are integrator R is decimator C1,C2,C3,C4,C5 are comb filter
- 20. Sample coding of integrator else For integrator section begin always @(posedge clk) x<=xin; begin rst1<=1'b1; if(~rst) i0<=i0+sxtx; begin integrator 1 i0<=26'd0; i1<=i1+i0; i1<=26'd0; integrator 2 i2<=26'd0; i2<=i2+i1; i3<=26'd0; integrator 3 i4<=26'd0; i3<=i3+i2; rst1<=1'b0; integrator 4 end i4<=i4+i3; integrator 5 end
- 21. Simulation results
- 22. Synthesis results Top module
- 23. Internal blocks of top module
- 24. 8 point FFT synthesized block
- 25. CONCLUSION Efficiency in terms of architecture optimizations such as those made in the Polyphase FFT. Implementation aspects leading to smaller area, low power, radiation hardness and low cost seem very promising. The designed channelizer can be utilized in real time SDR channel. There is promising decrease in noise by the design.
- 26. REFERENCES 1. R.E. Chrochier et al., “Multirate Digital Signal Processing”, Prentice Hall, 1981. 2. Package”, GOMAC 2002 Digest of Papers. 3. A.M. Badda and M. Donati, “The Software Defined Radio Technique Applied to the RF Front-End for Cellular Mobile Systems”, in Software Radio Technologies and Services”, Editor Enrico Del Re, Springer-Verlog 2001. 4. P.P Vaidyanathan, “Multirate Digital Filters, Filter Banks, Polyphase Networks and Applications: A Tutorial”, Proc. IEEE, Vol. 78, pp 56-93, 1990 5. K.Roy, et. al., “Hardware Architecture and VLSI Implementation of a Low-Power High-Performance Polyphase Channelizer with Applications to Subband Adaptive Filtering”, IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 2004.
- 27. 6. K. Roy, et al., “CSDC: a new complexity reduction technique for parallel multiplierless implementation of digital FIR filters”, submitted to IEEE Trans. Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing. 7. K. Roy, et al., Low-Power CMOS VLSI Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., ISBN 0-471-11488-X, 2000. 8. P. McGuirk, J.C. Lyke, et al., “Malleable Signal Processor: A General-purpose Module for Sensor Integration”, Military Applications of Programmable Logic Devices (MAPLD) 2000. 9. J. Rooks, J.Lyke, et. al., “Wafer Scale Signal Processors and Reconfigurable Processors in a 3- Dimensional C. Poivey, “Radiation Hardness Assurance for Space Systems,” IEEE NSREC2002 short course,Section V, 2002. 10. C. Poivey, et. al., “Radiation Characterization of Commercially Available 1M/4Mbit for Space Applications,” IEEE NSREC 1998 data workshop proceedings, 1998.
- 28. PRESENTATION BY SOORAJ

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