States of Matter and the Kinetic Theory

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States of Matter and the Kinetic Theory

  1. 1. STATES OF MATTER and the Kinetic Theory
  2. 2. MATTER •Is everywhere •Occupies space and has mass.
  3. 3. SOLIDS•Definite volume and shape at a given temperature •Usually expand slightly when heated and contract when cooled.
  4. 4. LIQUIDS •Have a fixed volume at a given temperature but will take the shape of the container. •Expand/contract slightly when heated/cooled •Compressible
  5. 5. GASES•Have no definite shape nor volume at a given temperature. •Volume is greatly affected by temperature •compressible
  6. 6. LIQUID CRYSTALS Click here to watch video.
  7. 7. LIQUID CRYSTALS • An unusual state of matter • Look and flow like liquids • Have some properties of crystals (solids) • Digital watches, calculators, computer and t.v. screens
  8. 8. KINETIC THEORY - EXPLAINS THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER IN TERMS OF THE MOVEMENT OF ITS CONSTITUENT PARTS.
  9. 9. KINETIC THEORY •All matter is made up of tiny, moving particles •These particles are constantly moving •↑ temp ↑ speed •↓ temp ↓ speed •Heavier particles move slower than lighter ones at a given temperature
  10. 10. SOLIDS • Particles vibrate around a fixed point. • Regular structure
  11. 11. LIQUIDS • Particles are free to move around each other • Particles collide often
  12. 12. GASES • Particles move freely and at random in all space available • Collisions are less often than liquid
  13. 13. DIFFUSION EVIDENCE OF MOVING PARTICLES Click here to watch video
  14. 14. DIFFUSION -EVIDENCE OF MOVING PARTICLES • Diffusion is the spreading out of a gas or a liquid. • Gasses diffuse to fill the space they are in. • The rate of diffusion depends on the weight of the molecules. Lighter particles move faster than heavier ones.
  15. 15. DIFFUSION -EVIDENCE OF MOVING PARTICLES • Diffusion of liquids is slower than gases because the particles are moving slower. • Intimate mixing – diffusion between a liquid and gas • Brownian motion – random movement of particles caused by other smaller ones.

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