Lecture7 circulatory system


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  • Lecture7 circulatory system

    1. 1. Indeks 12 • The circulatory system ( CS) is composed of two components: the cardiovascular system – CVS ( the function is to carry blood between the heart and the tissues) the lymphatic system – LS ( the function is to collect lymph and deliver it back to the CVS)
    2. 2. Indeks 12 The CVS is composed of : the heart ( that pumps the blood into two separated circuits: the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit) the blood vascular system ( arteries, capillaries, veins)
    3. 3. Indeks General Structure of Blood Vessels ♥ TUNICA INTIMA ♥ Internal elastic lamina ♥ TUNICA MEDIA ♥ External elastic lamina ♥ TUNICA ADVENTITIA
    4. 4. Indeks TUNICA INTIMA ♥ a single layer of endothelial cells ♥ a subendothelial layer
    5. 5. Indeks TUNICA MEDIA ♥ concentric layers of smooth muscle cells ♥ some elastic fibers ♥ type III collagen ♥ proteoglycans Capillaries and postcapillary venules do not have a tunica media. Pericytes replace the media.
    6. 6. Indeks TUNICA ADVENTITIA ♥ fibroblasts ♥ type I collagen fibers ♥ longitudinally oriented elastic fibers Vasa vasorum – in large vessels
    7. 7. Indeks Classification of arteries Elastic ( conducting ) Muscular (distributing) Arterioles
    8. 8. Arteriole
    9. 9. Indeks
    10. 10. Indeks Vasa Vasorum vasa vasorum, which supply blood for the wall of this large vein
    11. 11. Indeks CAPILLARIES are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells , rolled into a tube, resting on a basal lamina
    12. 12. Indeks ENDOTHELIAL CELLS are mesenchymal origin each cell contains desmin and vimentin filaments = provide structural support are joined together by zonulae occludentes and gap junctions
    13. 13. PERICYTES Indeks ♥are mesenchymal origin ♥are located along the outside of the capillaries and small venules ♥possess a small Golgi complex, mitochondria, rER, microtubules ♥contain myosin, actin,and tropomyosin and protein kinase, which are all related to contraction ♥may differentiate into smoooth muscle and endothelial cells- after injury
    14. 14. Continuous capillary blood-brain barrier muscle tissue connective tissue exocrine glands
    15. 15. Fenestrated capillary With diaphragme endocrine glands, intestine Without diaphragme renal glomerulus
    16. 16. Discontinuous ( sinusoidal) capillary liver, spleen, bone marrow
    17. 17. Functions of capillaries: Indeks 1. Transport of gases ( O2, CO2), and hydrophylic molecules (e.g.glucose) 2. Metabolic: a. Production of vasoactive factors: endothelin I- acts as hypertensive agent b. Secretion of : - collagen types II, IV, V, - fibronectin, laminin ( the ExCM) c. Antithrombogenic – prevent contact of platelets with the subendothelial CT d. Lipolysis- breakdown of lipoproteins e. Inactivation- bradykinin, serotonin, prostaglandins, norepinephrine, thrombin
    18. 18. CAPILLARY
    19. 19. Indeks The Endocardium consists of: ♥ a single layer of squamous endothelial cells ♥ a thin subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue ♥ the subendocardial layer ( with veins, nerves and Purkinje cells)
    20. 20. The Myocardium Indeks ♥ is the thickest of the tunics ♥ consists of cardiac muscle arranged in layers and grouped into three populations: 1. contractile cells 2. the impulse-generating and conducting cells 3. specialized cardiac muscle cells – located in the atrial wall-produce peptide: atrial natriuretic polypeptide ( cardiodilatin, cardionatrin) it acts on kidneys to cause sodium and water loss ( balance of electrolytes and blood pressure)
    21. 21. Indeks The Epicardium is the serous covering of the heart and forming the visceral layer of the pericardium is covered externally by mesothelium
    22. 22. Structures that control heartbeat Indeks the sinoatrial node internodal tracts the atrioventricular node the atrioventricular bundle of His Purkinje cells The sinoatrial node is the pacemaker of the heart
    23. 23. Indeks Atrioventricular bundle of His right bundle branches left bundle branches fascicles PURKINJE CELLS
    24. 24. Lymphatic vessels Indeks ♥ are found in all organs ♥ are blind-ended ♥ consist of a single layer of endothelium ♥ have no fenestrations in their endothelial cells, no zonula occludens between cells and incomplete basal lamina ♥ they absorb some of electrolytes and proteins that leave the blood capillares
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