Lecture3 the connective adiose tissues

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  • 1. CONNECTIVE TISSUE FAMILY Connective tissue Adipose tissue
  • 2. CONNECTIVE TISSUES  The general characteristic – the same structure for all type of connective tissues (cells and extracellular matrix), the same origin – mesenchyme  Unlike epithelial cells, connective tissue cells are widely seperated by components of extracellular matrix. Epithelial tissue Closely aggregated polyhedral cells and very little extracellular matrix Epithelia are derived from all germinal layers. Cells of connective tissue + extracellular matrix [EM]  Connective tissue proper  Adipose tissue  Cartilage  Bone  Blood and bone marrow
  • 3. Structurally, connective tissue is composed of three elements:  Cells  Fibers −collagen fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers  Ground substance Fibers + ground substance = extracellular matrix Cells of connective tissues (CTs)  Connective tissue − fibroblasts, fibrocytes  Adipose tissue – adipoblasts, adipocytes  Cartilage – chondroblasts, chondrocytes  Bone – osteoblasts, osteocytes  Blood – formed elements (erytrocytes, leukocytes) produced in the bone marrow – hematopoietic stem cells
  • 4. The connective tissue cell lineage derived from multipotential embryonic mesenchyme cells In the bone marrow
  • 5. Connective tissue (CT) Cells A variety of cells with different functions are present in CT  The cells spend all their live in the tissue  Fibroblasts – originate locally from undifferentiated mesenchymal cells  Fibrocytes – quiescent fibroblasts  The cells which reside in the tissue  Mast cells (from hematopoietic stem cells - HSC)  Macrophages (HSC) – monocytes → macrophages  Plasma cells (HSC) – B lymphocytes → plasma cells  Leukocytes (HSC) – live in the tissue for a few days and die  Melanocytes – originate from neuroectoderm (neural crest)
  • 6. Fibroblasts _ Fibrocytes  Fibroblasts  the most common cells in connective tissue  cells responsible for the synthesis of extracelullar matrix components  an abundant and irregularly branched cytoplasm  ovoid, large and pale staining nucleus with nucleolus  rich in RER and well developed Golgi complex  produce the growth factors → influence growth and cells differentiation  proliferate when the additional fibroblasts are  Fibrocytes  smaller than fibroblasts  fewer processes  smaller, darker, elongated nucleus  small amount of RER Two stages of activity The active cells ↓ Fibroblasts The quiescent cells ↓ Fibrocytes
  • 7. The regenerative capacity for the connective tissue  The regenerative capacity is observed when tissues are destroyed by inflammation or traumatic injury.  Fibroblast - the main cell type involved in repair  During wound healing, the fibrocyte reverts to the fibroblast stage, and its synthetic activities are reactivated. Fibroblast ↔ Fibrocyte
  • 8.  Myofibroblasts  Macrophages  Mast cells  Leukocytes  Plasma cells  Melanocytes The cells which reside in the tissue Myofibroblasts  The cells with features of fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (SMC)  They are observed during wound healing  They have most of the morphological characteristics of fibroblasts but contain increased amount of actin microfilaments and myosin and behave like SMC  The activity of myofibroblasts is responsible for wound closure after tissue injury – wound contraction
  • 9. φ 10 – 30 µm Macrophages → the Mononuclear Phagocyte System  Morphological features reflect functional activity of macrophages:  they can be recognized by staining and by pseudopodia which are found only in macrophages  irregular surface with pleats and protrusions – pinocytotic and phagocytic activity  oval or kidney-shaped nucleus located centrally  well-developed Golgi complex, many lysosomes, prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)  Macrophages derive from bone marrow precursor cells that divide producing monocytes  Monocytes cross the wall of venules and capillaries to penetrate the connective tissue  They mature and acquire morphological features of macrophages  Macrophages are long-living cells, can proliferate locally and may survive for months in tissues.  The cells are distributed throughout the body, and in certain region have special names:  histocytes – the connective tissue proper  Kupffer cells – the liver  microglia cells – the central nervous system  Langerhans cells – the epidermis  osteoclasts – the bone
  • 10. Macrophages function  phagocytosis of foreign substances and bacteria  antigen processing and presentation to other cells (Antigen Presenting Cells – APC)  secretion of cytokines and other molecules  cytokines participate in defensive and reparative functions  enzymes, eg. collagenase  removing cell debris and damaged extracellular components  Macrophages when stimulated  may increase in size and are arrangement in clusters forming epithelioid cells;  may fuse to form multinuclear giant cells  Epithelioid cells and giant cells are found only in pathological conditions. Multinuclear giant cells
  • 11. Mast cells derive from progenitor cells in the bone marrow, they have a separate stem cells than basophilic leukocytes φ 10 – 13 µm  Oval to round connective tissue cells  The cytoplasm is filled with basophilic secretory granules  Small, spherical nucleus, situated centrally  Secretory granules of mast cells  0.3 – 2.0 µm in diameter  they contain mediators:  histamine - promotes an increase in vascular permeability  heparin - (sulfated glycosaminoglycan is blood anticoagulant)  neutral proteases  eosinophilic chemotactic factor for anaphylaxis (ECF-A)  substances not stored in the granules:  leukotriens (C4, D4, E4)  slow-reacting substance for anaphylaxis (SRS-A)  The surface of mast cells contains specific receptors for immunoglobulin E (IgE)  The connective tissue mast cells  skin and peritoneal cavity  10 – 12 µm in diameter  their granules contain anticoagulant heparin  The mucosal mast cells  the connective tissue of the intestinal mucosa and lungs  5 – 10 µm in diameter  their granules contain chondroitin sulfate
  • 12. Eosinophil chemotactic factor for anaphylaxis Mast-cell secretion. 1: The first exposure to an antigen (eg, bee venom), IgE molecules are bound to the surface receptors. 2: After a second exposure to the antigen, IgE molecules bound to surface receptors are cross-linked by the antigen. 3: These events lead to intracellular fusion of specific granules and exocytosis of their contents. 4: In addition, leukotrienes are produced. The process of contents granules realizing does not damage the cell, cell synthesizes new granules.
  • 13. Leukocytes or white blood corpuscles  the wandering cells of connective tissue  they migrate through the walls of capillaries and postcapillary venules from the blood to connective tissue (diapedesis) Diapadesis  Granulocytes  Lymphocytes B and T Lymphocytes are found in small numbers throughout the connective tissues, where they perform much of their immunological functions Lymphocyte B Lymphocyte B Plasma cell
  • 14. Plasma cells  large, ovoid cells with basophilic cytoplasm, very well developed RER  the Golgi complex and the centrioles occupy pale region in histological slides  spherical nucleus, placed excentrically containing compact, coarse heterochromatin and lighter areas – the configuration resembles the face of a clock (nucleus having a clock-face appearance)  Average of plasma cells live is short, 10 – 20 days.  B lymphocyte → plasma cell → synthesis of immunoglobulins Plasma cells are widely dispersed throughout the connective tissues. 1] They are particularly abundant in the lamina propria of the alimentary canal and respiratory passageways. a} They are also found in the lymphoid organs. b} They are rarely found in the blood
  • 15. Adipose cells  Adipose cells, adipocytes, fat cells  the connective tissue cells for storage of neutral fats or for the production of heat. Melanocytes  are derived from neuroectoderm of neural crest  synthesize and accumulate the melanin  the skin
  • 16. The extracellular matrix  Ground substance  Glycosaminoglycans  Fibers  Collagen fibers  Elastic fibers  Reticular fibers  Proteoglicans  Multiadhesive glycoproteins Fibers The connective tissue fibers are formed by proteins that polymerize into elongated structures. The predominant fiber type is responsible for conferring specific properties of the tissue.  Collagen fibers  are formed by protein collagen  the collagen is the most abundance protein in the human body (30% of dry weight)  the collagens belong to a family of more than 25 members, produced by several cells type  the collagens are distinguishable by their molecular composition, morphological features, distribution, function and pathologies are acidophilic; stain pink with eosin, blue with Mallory’s stain, green with Masson’s trichrome stain, red with Sirius red. eosin Mallory’s
  • 17.  The cell type responsible for collagen synthesis  fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts  odontoblasts  endothelial cells  vascular smooth muscle cells  The collagen profile • the principal amino acids – glycine (33.5%), proline (12%), hydroxyproline (10%) • amino acids that are characteristic of the collagen – hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine Collagen types  Type I − the abundant: skin, tendon, bone, dentin – resistance to tension  Type II − cartilage, vitreous body – resistance to pressure  Type III − skin, muscle, blood vessels, frequently together with type I – structural maintenance in expansible organs  Type IV − all basement membranes – support of delicate structure, filtration (chicken-wire organization)  Type V − fetal tissue, skin, bone, placenta, most interstitial tissues – participate in type I collagen function  Type VII – epithelia – anchors skin epidermal basal lamina to underlying stroma (anchoring fibrils)
  • 18. Collagen is a protein polymer composed of monomeric units of the protein Tropocollagen Tropocollagen Three α chains  elongated protein 280 nm in length and 1.5 nm in width Collagen gets it's strength from it's structural arrangement. a} Collagen is arranged into microfibrils. b} Microfibrils are arranged into fibrils. c} Fibrils are grouped into a fiber. d} Fibers are grouped into a collagen bundle Schematic drawing of an aggregate of collagen molecules, fibrils, fibers, and bundles. There is a stepwise overlapping arrangement of rodlike tropocollagen subunits, each measuring 280 nm (1). This arrangement results in the production of alternating lacunar and overlapping regions (2) that cause the cross-striations characteristic of collagen fibrils and confer a 64-nm periodicity of dark and light bands when the fibril is observed in the electron microscope (3). Fibrils aggregate to form fibers (4), which aggregate to form bundles (5) routinely called collagen fibers. Collagen type III usually does not form bundles.
  • 19. Collagen synthesis  Procollagen synthesis  Registration peptides on both amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal end  precursor of tropocollagen  Hydroxylation of proline and lysine  peptidyl proline hydroxylase  peptidyl lysine hydroxylase Co-factors: O2, Fe, vit. C Glycosylation of hydroxylysine  transferases Mn Removing of registration peptides  procollagen peptidases  tropocollagen Formation of covalent crosslinks between tropocollagen molecules  lysyl oxidase Cu and O2 ions
  • 20. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency lead to the scurvy, disease characterized by the degeneration of connective tissue. Lack of vit. C → abnormal hydroxylation of procollagen → synthesis of defective collagen
  • 21. Reticular fibers  consist mainly of type III collagen  extremely thin with diameter between 0.5 to 2 µm  they form extensive network in certain organs  stain black by impregnation with silver salts – agyrophylic fibers  Localization  are particularly abundant in smooth muscle  endoneurium  framework in spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow  constitute a network around the cells of parenchymal organ, eg. liver, endocrine glands  the wall of arteries Reticular fibers
  • 22. Elastic fibers  Elastin – the main component  Precursor of elastin is proelastin  Elastin is resistant to boiling, acid and alkali extraction  Elastin is hydrolyzed by pancreatic elastase  Elastin is rich in glycin and proline  Contains two unusual amino acids – desmosine and isodesmosine formed by covalent reaction between four lysine resiudes  has rubberlike qualities  stains brown with orcein and violet with resorcine-fuchsin  Elastoblasts  Fibroblasts  Chondroblasts  Vascular SMC  Endothelial cells Elastin molecules are joined by covalent bonds to generate an extensive cross-linked network. Because each elastin molecule in the network can expand and contract like a random coil, the entire network can stretch and recoil like a rubber band.
  • 23. The elastic fibers system  Oxytalan fibers  zonule fibers of the eye  dermis  do not contain elastin  consist of a bundle of 10 nm microfibrils composed of glycoproteins: fibromodulin I and II, and large molecule – fibrillin.  Elaunin fibers  around sweet glands  dermis  irregular deposits of elastin between the microfibrils  mixture of elastin and microfibrils without preferential orientation Microfibrils Elastin  Elastic fibers  the wall of large arteries  connective tissues  elastin located centrally and thin sheath of microfibrils  the most numerous component of the elastic fibers system
  • 24. Ground substance  highly hydrated, colorless and transparent complex mixture of macromolecules  it fills the space between cells and fibers  it is viscous and acts as lubricant and barrier to the penetration of invaders  Glycosaminoglycans  Proteoglycans  Multiadhesive glycoproteins
  • 25. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)  called mucopolysaccharides  are linear polysaccharides formed by repeating disaccharide units composed of uronic acid and hexosamine.  uronic acid – glucuronic or iduronic acid  hexamine – glucosamine or galactosamine  with the exception of hyaluronic acid GAGs are bound covalently to a protein core, forming proteoglycans  with the exception of hyaluronic acid all other GAGs are sulfated  GAGs are intensely hydrophilic and act as polyanions  dermatan sulfate  chondroitin sulfate  keratan sulfate  heparan sulfate  hyaluronic acid
  • 26. Distribution of glycosaminoglycans in connective tissue Glycosaminoglycan Distribution Hyaluronic acid Umbilical cord, synovial fluid, vitreous humor, cartilage Chondroitin 4- sulfate Cartilage, bone, cornea, skin, notochord, aorta Chondroitin 6- sulfate Cartilage, umbilical cord,skin, aorta (media) Dermatan sulfate Skin, tendon, aorta (adventitia) Heparan sulfate Aorta, lung, liver, basal laminae Keratan sulfate (cornea) Cornea Keratan sulfate (skeleton) Cartilage, nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus
  • 27. Proteoglycans  are composed of a core protein associated with the four main glycosaminoglycans (without hyaluronic acid)  proteoglycan (monomer) is three-dimensional structure (can be pictured as test tube brush)  Extracellular matrix (EM) proteoglycans  aggrecan – the most important, the dominant in cartilage  syndecan  fibroglycan Proteoglycan monomer o Functions:  structural component of EM  anchoring cells to the EM  as extracellular and surface proteoglycans bind many protein growth factors (TGF-β → transforming growth factor) Core protein Proteoglycan aggregates  Proteoglycans are degradated by several cell types (lysosomal enzymes). The lack of lysosomal enzymes causes several disorders in humans
  • 28. Multiadhesive glycoproteins  contain protein moiety with carbohydrates  play an important role in the interaction between neighboring adult and embryonic cells  play role in the adhesion of cells to their substrate  Fibronectin  the product of fibroblasts and epithelial cells  has sites to bind cells, collagen and GAGs, the interactions help to mediate normal cell adhesion and migration Protein  Laminin  participates in the adhesion of epithelial cells to basal lamina  Matrix receptors – cell-surface molecules that bind to collagen, fibronectin, laminin  Integrins – transmembrane linker protein, interact with the cytoskeleton (actin)  Intracellular proteins – the interaction between integrins, EM, cytoskeleton elements  Paxilin  Vinculin  Talin
  • 29. Types of connective tissue
  • 30. Mesenchyme  The precursor embryonic tissue for all types of connective tissue  Stellate undifferentiated cells and ground substance  The lack of fibers  Under specific stimuli the cells differentiate into the cells of connective tissue such fibroblasts, chondroblasts, osteoblasts, blood cells Embryo head
  • 31. The connective tissue proper  Loose connective tissue  the very common type of connective tissue  fills spaces between groups of muscle cells, supports epithelial tissue, forms layer sheathing lymphatic and blood vessels.  is found in papillary layer of dermis, in hypodermis, mucous membranes  has delicate consistency, it is flexible, well vascularized, not very resistant to stress
  • 32. Dense connective tissue (CT)  is adapted to offer resistance and protection  there are fewer cells than loose connective tissue and high amount of collagen fibers  is less flexible and far more resistant to stress than loose connective tissue  Dense irregular CT  the collagen fibers are arranged in bundles without a definite orientation  the collagen fibers form three-dimensional network  provide resistance to stress from all directions  is found in dermis, perichondrium, periosteum Collagen fibers Fibrocytes
  • 33.  Dense regular CT  the collagen bundles are arranged in the definite pattern  the collagen fibers are alginated with the linear orientation of fibroblasts in response to prolonged stresses exerted in the same directions  it is found in tendons Tendon  the collagen fibers have parallel, closely packed bundles of collagen separated by a small quantity of intracellular ground substance  fibrocytes have elongated nuclei parallel to the fibers  the cytoplasm of fibroblasts stains the same color as the fibers  The primary collagen bundles aggregate into larger bundles – secondary bundles, enveloped by loose connective tissue with blood vessels and nerves Nuclei of fibrocytes Collagen fibers
  • 34. The connective tissue with special properties  Elastic tissue  is composed of bundles of thick parallel elastic fibers  the spaces between the fibers are occupied by thin collagen fibers and flattened fibroblasts  is found in yellow ligaments of the vertebrates column  Reticular tissue  the very delicate reticular tissue forms three-dimensional network that support cells  consists of reticular fibers (type III collagen) and specialized fibroblasts named reticular cells  reticular tissue create the special microenvironment for hematopoietic organs and lymphoid organs Reticular cell Reticular fibers
  • 35. The connective tissue with special properties  Mucous connective tissue  has a abundance of ground substance rich in hyaluronic acid  is jellylike tissue containing very few fibers and a more viscous ground substance.  the cells – mainly fibroblasts  is found in umbilical cord and is referred to as Wharton’s Jelly  is found in the pulp of young teeth Umbilical cord
  • 36. Adipose tissue  Special type of the connective tissue with predomination of adipose cells (adipocytes, fat cells)  Adipocytes  are found as isolated cells, in small aggregates (adipose tissue)  Adipose tissue (the largest organ in the body)  in men of normal weight represents 15 – 30% of the body  in woman of normal weight = 20 − 25% of the body Adipose tissue is found in a variety of places such as: 1] the hypodermis 2] surrounding and protecting certain organs 3] the medullary cavity of long bones Functions: 1] stores energy 2] insulates the body form heat loss 3] cushions the body and protects delicate organs (ex; the kidney) from mechanical trauma Adipose tissue  Uniocular adipose tissue (common or yellow)  Multiocular adipose tissue (brown)
  • 37. Uniocular (common or yellow) adipose tissue  The color varies from white to dark yelow (depends on diet – carotenoids)  It is found throughout the human body except  eyelids, the penis, the scrotum, the entire auricle of the external ear (without the lobule)  The distribution is determined by age and sex  in the newborn has uniform thickness in the body  its distribution is partly regulated by sex hormones and adrenocortical hormones (different distribution in male and female body) Spherical, isolated, cell Signet ring cells Sudan III Lipid droplet Lipids are removed in routine histological techniques Nucleus Cytoplasm Polyhedral cells in adipose tissue
  • 38. Uniocular (common or yelow) adipose tissue  Cytoplasm  Golgi complex  mitochondria  poorly developed RER  SER  free polyribosomes  pinocytotic vesicles φ 50 – 150 µm Basal lamina Vimentin intermediate filament  Adipose tissue  is richly vascularized
  • 39. Uniocular (common or yelow) adipose tissue  Large depot of energy for organism  Lipids in adipose cells – triglycerides (esters of fatty acids), glycerol  Adipose cells can synthesize fatty acids from glucose → insulin  Metabolism of adipose tissue is regulated by hormones  nonepinephrine, growth hormone, glucocorticoids, prolactin, corticotropin, insulin and thyroid hormone  The autonomic nervous system plays important role in mobilization of fats Adipose tissue as a secretory organ  synthesis of several molecules – lipoprotein lipase  leptin  protein participating in the regulation of the amount of adipose tissue in the body and in the food ingestion  receptor for leptin in the brain and other tissues  adiponectin  adipsin  TNFα (Tumor Necrosis Factor α)
  • 40. Histogenesis of uniocular adipose tissue  during a finite postnatal period, nutritional and other influences can result in the increase in number of adipocytes  after the period the cells do not increase in the number  Adipocytes accumulate more lipids only under conditions of excess caloric intake (overfeeding)  The early increase in the number of adipocytes may predispose an individual to obesity in latter life
  • 41. Multiocular adipose tissue (brown fat)  Multiocular tissue cells are polygonal and smaller than uniocular adipose cells  The cytoplasm contains  great number of lipid droplets of various sizes  spherical and central nucleus  numerous mitochondria with abundant long cristae (containing colored cytochromes)  The cells receive direct sympathetic innervation  The tissue is rich in capillaries
  • 42. Distribution of multiocular adipose tissue  The tissue is more abundant in hibernating animals – hibernating gland  In humans the tissue is important mainly in the first postnatal life (produces heat and protects the newborn against cold)  It is greatly reduced in adulthood In human newborn the multiocular adipose tissue constitutes 2 - 5% of the body weight  Mainly around the shoulder blades and kidneys
  • 43. Function of the multiocular adipose tissue  The main function is to produce heat  The production is stimulated when animals or human newborns are exposed to the cold environment  Nerve impulses release epinephrine → the stimulation of lipase in adipocytes → the release of fatty acid, that are metabolized → heat production (temperature of tissue is elevated)  Mitochondria of multiocular adipocytes contain transmembrane protein – thermogenin  The energy is not used to synthesize ATP but is dissipated as heat  Warmed blood circulates throughout the body
  • 44. Slides  Mesenchyme
  • 45.  Mucous tissue The umbilical cord - Warthon’s jelly Vein Arteries
  • 46.  Loose connective tissue  Nuclei of fibrocytes and others cells  Collagen fibers  Elastic fibers Collagen fibers Elastic fibers
  • 47.  Dense connective tissue  Dense regular CT  Dense irregular CT Trachea Tendon Perichondrium
  • 48.  Adipose tissue Sudan III Signet ring cells