1childchina
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1childchina 1childchina Document Transcript

  • China’s One-Child Policy China’s one-child family policy, where families are restricted to having just one child, is well-known throughout the world. The State Family Planning Bureau is responsible for the overall population control targets and setting policy direction at a national level. Meanwhile local strategies for implementation, through birth control or abortion, is left to family-planning committees at provincial and county levels. The policy is strictly enforced for urban residents and government employees. However, there are some exceptions: if the first child has a disability; if both spouses work in high-risk occupations; or, in some areas, if both parents are from one-child families. For the rural population, some seventy percent of the Chinese people, a second child is usually permitted after five years. Ethnic minorities and those who live in sparsely populated areas can have a third child. Since the population controls are set at a local level, there is understandably great variation in the consequences of violating the policy. Most Chinese women accept the birth control method recommended by the local committee. The one-child policy was enacted in 1979 as a temporary measure to halt the exponential growth in the Chinese population. At that time China had one-quarter of the world’s population with a land area roughly the size of the continental United States. Now China’s population is four times that of the United States. To get an idea of the crowding in urban areas, try to visualize another three people everywhere you go. In 1979 about two-thirds of the Chinese population was under 30 years of age. China had a Baby Boomer generation about the same time as the United States. In 1976 Chairman Mao who had ruled China with a strict Communist regime died, leaving the government room to institute economic reforms. In order to stabilize the economy and raise the standard of living for the Chinese people, the government acted to stem population growth. With the one-child policy the rate of population growth has indeed slowed and is no longer exponential. The average number of children for urban families in 2004 was 1.3 in urban areas and 2 in rural areas. However, other populations in Asia recognize the negative effects of overcrowding and with voluntary efforts the fertility rate is 1.04 in Singapore, 1.38 in Japan, and 0.91 in the Hong Kong. One long-term effect of the improvements in the standard of living and the one-child policy is that the elderly in China have no one to care for them. The elderly now have a longer life expectancy but only a few Chinese have any form of pension or could afford to save for their old age. In the past, they could rely on several children for assistance. Through the United Nations, other countries of the world have asked China to abolish its one-child policy in the name of human rights. However, as of 2002, the policy is still in force. The only concessions that have been made is choice in birth control method and no longer requiring state permission to have a first child. © GetWorksheets.com
  • Name: ____________________________________ Date: _______ Multiple Choice Questions Circle the correct answer. 1. China’s one-child policy was enacted to a. Restrict the growth in the Chinese population b. Improve the standard of living in China c. Both a. and b. above d. None of the above 2. China’s one-child policy is strictly enforced for a. Government workers b. Minority populations c. Sparsely populated areas d. All of the above 3. What percent of Chinese people live in urban areas? a. 30% b. 50% c. 70% d. 90% 4. The population of China is a. Half the U.S. population b. Twice the U.S. population c. Triple the U.S. population d. Quadruple the U.S. population 5. The one-child policy was enacted in 1979 a. After the death of Chairman Mao b. Because two-thirds of the population was under 30 years old c. To improve the long-term economic outlook d. All of the above 6. After decades of the one-child policy a. China is ready to abolish the policy b. Women can choose the method of birth control c. Most couples in urban areas can have two children d. None of the above © GetWorksheets.com
  • Name: ____________________________________ Date: _______ Short Answer Questions 1. Explain the hierarchy for enforcing China’s one-child policy. 2. Discuss the social implications of a local committee having so much power over the lives of families in their area. 3. Is it wrong to call China’s policy a one-child policy if rural people, the majority, can have two children? 4. List the criteria for urban couples to be allowed a second child. 5. Think about the next generation if both spouses are only children. Discuss what happens to the extended family and whether you would like to live in that circumstance. 6. Discuss the impact of China’s one-child rule on the elderly population of China. 7. Do you think China’s one-child policy is a violation of human rights? Explain why or why not. © GetWorksheets.com
  • Answer Key Multiple Choice 1. c. 2. a. 3. a. 4. d. 5. d. 6. b. Short Answer 1. The State Family Planning Bureau is responsible for the overall population control targets and setting policy direction at a national level. Meanwhile local strategies for implementation, through birth control or abortion, is left to family-planning committees at provincial and county levels. 2. Open-ended question. Individual response 3. Individual response 4. Urban couples can have a second child: if the first child has a disability; if both spouses work in high-risk occupations; or, in some areas, if both parents are from one-child families. 5. Individual response 6. One long-term effect of the improvements in the standard of living and the one-child policy is that the elderly in China have no one to care for them. The elderly now have a longer life expectancy but only a few Chinese have any form of pension or could afford to save for their old age. In the past, they could rely on several children for assistance. 7. Individual response © GetWorksheets.com