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Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9
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Fandamental quality mgt-Ch-6 and Ch-9

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CH-6-Software-quality-management …

CH-6-Software-quality-management
CH-9-quality-strategy-indian-industry

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  • 1. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 2
  • 2.  The software industry in India has made usproud by demonstrating to the world thatIndians ca be leader in the filed of softwaretechnology. India produces 250 thousand software engineerannually, and this number is growing at therate of 20-25%.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 3
  • 3.  Indian companies had to built credibility in theoutsourcing market and focus on the qualityaspect to differentiate themselves fromordinary suppliers. Because the world looks towards the Indian ITsoftware and service industry for quality andprice performance© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 4
  • 4.  For automating & Managing the tasks of theentire organization Managing the payments by payroll system. For invoicing & billing Procedure. To manage the asset both physical & Intangiblei.e. intellectual property, goodwill. To increase the efficiency and effectiveness oforganization activities.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 5
  • 5. The major task in improving softwarequality is to minimize the no of faults or defectsor bug or error. Common measurement ofsoftware quality are as follows:- Mean time between failures. Mean time to repair a defect (MTTR) Defect rate by hour, day, week, or month© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved.
  • 6.  Defect rate per unit of software size, such asfunction point or thousand lines of code Size of the defect backlog Number of clean lines of code or systemcomponents that passed quality assurance onthe first attempt• Cumulative defects per version• Timeliness of response to defect or time to fixdefect• Customer level of satisfaction with softwareand quality of work done to fix defect• Rate of defects per unit of software sizediscovered in the first year after delivery© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 7
  • 7.  The Capability maturity model (CMM) wasdeveloped by the Software EngineeringInstitute(SEI) of Carnegie MellonUniversity, USA. The earlier model was s staged representationthrough maturity levels, wile the currentmodel-CMMi (i-integration) is continuousrepresentation through capability levels.8
  • 8.  Out of 117 global companies 80 IndianSoftware companies have attained SEI-CMMlevel-5 . For the application of the model, we need tochoose one of four bodies of knowledge ordiscipline-system engineering, softwareengineering, integrated product and processdevelopment, and lastly, supplier sourcing.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 9
  • 9.  The model concentrates upon four process areacategories namely, processmanagement, project management, engineeringand support. Each of these process categories containsvarious process areas. For all the process areas, the model containsgeneric goals and generic practice© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 10
  • 10. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 11
  • 11. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 12
  • 12.  The organization must determine its processperformance objective, such as cycletime, productivity, defects correction rates. Key processes have to be prioritized on the basisof cost involved and level of difficulty inimplementation. So proper action plan should be made andprogress of implementing those action plan trackedcontinually13
  • 13.  The organization must establish standardprocess suitable to particular site, offices etc. These standard process can be broken downinto small process elements for betterunderstanding. The key attribute of theseelements , such as input, output, interfaces andverification points, should be identified. The organization must establish process assetlibrary containing corporatepolicies, , procedure manual, developmentplan, quality strategies, training material.14
  • 14.  An organization training tactical plan containingthe training topic, schedules trainingmethods, training material quality requirementand the required resources should be prepared. Organization must develop training capabilities bydeciding approach to training, that is, classroomteaching, computer-aided training, self –study, mentorship. Cost-benefit analysis also need to be done. Training effectiveness can be judged by participantsurvey, job performance improvement.15
  • 15.  Process measure such as effort, cycletime, defect removal rates etc as well asproduct measure such as reliability, are usedin, assessing, the process performance© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 16
  • 16.  The whole idea behind the process area is tointroduce incremental improvement throughinnovation in organizations process andtechnologies. The objective addressed here can be increasingcustomer satisfaction, improving the productquality, decreasing the cycle time, increasingthe productivity, and so on…..© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 17
  • 17.  It starts with defining the scope of the projectby breaking down the project into workbreakdown structure(WBS). The WBS developed by creating small andmanageable components of the project knownas work packages. This makes it easier to assign resources andresponsibilities for execution of the project.. Also to track and control progress inimplementation of it.18
  • 18.  Monitoring would be required for datamanagement and stake holder involvement.Forma or informal progress review should beconducted These reviews must be documented properly. The corrective action required such as addingmore resources, revising plan, changing theprocess etc should be implemented.19
  • 19.  The supplier should be selected on the basis ofcriteria such as the geographical location of thesupplier, supplier’s past performance withsimilar requirement, staff and facilities of thesupplier, engineering capabilities of thesupplier, etc. The risk should be worked out with legalagreement in warranty, acceptance criteria,ongoing maintenance and support of acquiredproducts.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 20
  • 20.  A project’s defined process constituted bybusiness and operationalenvironment, organizational process needs andobjectives, product and componentrequirement, should be established , . This is subjected to peer reviews and revised ifrequired.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 21
  • 21.  The various source of possible risk in thecreation of a product or execution of a projectmust be determined. Example of such sources can be unavailabilityof technology, unprecedented effortrequirement(estimates not available) uncertainvendor capability, and so on. The variousparameter of risks such aslikelihood(Probability ofOccurrence), severity(impact ofoccurrence), and threshold to act as triggers formanagement action upon occurrence should
  • 22.  The identified risk should be evaluated andcategorized in classes such aslow, medium, high , critical, catastrophic, etc. Plans should be developed for mitigating therisk, such as risk avoidance(lowering therequirement, but still satisfying the customer’sneeds) and risk control (taking measures tominimize the risk) and risk monitoring forsome favorable changes in parameters.23
  • 23.  This process area focuses on forming teams ofemployees for the execution of project. The knowledge and skill required by team forperforming a task should be identified. Theselection of members of the team should bebased on criteria such as ability to work in ateam environment, a learning aptitude, abilityto represent a functional area, etc.24
  • 24.  Potential Sources of Product and componentrequired should be found by proactivelyengaging in market research continually, as newsupplier may emerge with better and cheaperproducts and components. The supplier have to be evaluated on variouscriteria such as ability to fulfill critical deliveryand integration dates, on-site support relating tointegration problem etc25
  • 25.  The quality and process performance objectivesof the project have to be reviewed. The attributes of the quality and processperformance objective can be mean timebetween failure, number and severity of thecustomer complaints. Similarly process performance can be cycletime, defect escape rate, percentage of reworktime etc.26
  • 26.  The need, expectation and constraints of thestakeholder in the project (customer, supplier,employee, top management, promoters, etc)are collected . Certain need should be elicited by usinginterviews, surveys, brainstorming sessions,quality function deployment, etc.27
  • 27.  The customer requirement should be translatedin product components, whhich in turn shouldbe expressed in technical terms. The operational concepts and scenarioscontainingfunctionality, performance, maintenance, support and disposal.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 28
  • 28.  Here the product –components solution are beingselected. For example commercial-off –the self(COTS)components may be considered in order to takecare off the cost, schedule, performance, and riskissues.. The operational concepts and scenarios documentthe interaction of the product components with theusers, environment and other product components.29
  • 29.  These should be documented so as to be usedduring product delivery andinstallation, operation, maintenance anddisposal. Materials to support the use of theproduct, such as instruction manual, servicemanual, operator’s manual etc should bedeveloped .© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 30
  • 30.  Having designed and created the productcomponents, now it is time to integrate thesecomponents to form the finished product. The environment required for productintegration (e.g. test equipment, simulators,fabrication equipment, etc.) during each step ofthe product integration process should becreated or bought. The product integration procedure and criteria,such as level of testing for build components,quality/cost trade-off, lead time from order todelivery should be established. 31
  • 31.  The verification methods to be used should beidentified, for example, in softwareengineering, the testing methods can be load,test and performance testing, path coveragetesting. A verification environment including testingequipment, personnel should be created . Criteria and procedure based on the factorssuch as standards (CMM or ISO), quality-cost-trade-off, test type, organizational policies etc.32
  • 32.  Products or product components to bevalidated should be selected and the scope ofvalidation including operationalbehavior, maintenance, training, user interfaceetc. should be determined. Validation environment, methods, criteria andprocedure should be established.33
  • 33.  It involves the identification anddocumentation of the functional and physicalcharacteristics of a selected item. These can be descriptions, requirements, testplans, procedure and results, programmingcode/modules There are three types of configurationmanagement systems. Dynamic(developer’s),Masters controlled),Static34
  • 34.  Dynamic configuration management systemcontain items which are currently being createdor being updated by the developer. Master configuration management systemcontain items with current baselines includingthe changes incorporated in them. Static configuration management systemcontain the achieves of various baselinereleased for use.35
  • 35.  The process / product should be evaluatedagainst the process description, procedure andstandard (CMM/ISO). The frequency of audits, personnel to beinvolved in it, method of evaluation anditems/work products/process to be evaluatedshould be decided using appropriate criteria. Quality –related trends should be analyzed toget some clues to solve quality issues.36
  • 36.  The measures to be used in the measurementprocess should be identified either as a basemeasure (Such as labor hours, number of pagesof document, no of defects) or derived measure(Such as defect density, mean time tofailure, no of defects by severity). Issues relating to the analysis of data, forexample, the tool to be used (for example thetypes of charts, types of measure of centraltendency-mean, median, mode, statisticalsampling criteria, handling situation of missingdata elements) should be sorted The data should be analyzed and discussed. 37
  • 37.  The criteria to analyze a decision should be therisk associated with the issue requiringdecisions as medium or high, decision relatedto issues which may result in undue delays ,decision affecting the achievement of theproject objectives and the cost of formalevaluation compared to the impact of thedecision. Suitable evaluation methods should beselected for example simulations, extrapolationof current trends, cost studies, etc.38
  • 38.  The first step here is the establishment of theorganizations shared vision that included itsmission, objective, expected behavior andvalues which communicated to all theemployee and external partners. An integrated work environment supported byfacilities , tools, and equipment to aid theemployees perform the task in an integratedfashion.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 39
  • 39.  For example , to ensure proper communicationwithin the organization, meeting rooms, e-mailfacility, faxes, etc can be provided. Suitable leadership skill /approach need to beimparted in employee which can becommanding, consultative, collaborative,consensus or structured.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 40
  • 40.  This process area focuses on the identification ofdefects and problems and finding off the rootcause for their resolution. The defect can come from complaints bycustomer, end users, peer reviews, testing. Which is subjected to be analyzed using Paretoanalysis, histograms. The proposed action should be implemented andchanges should be made .41
  • 41. The capability level denote the maturity of theprocess area as signified by the terminology-incomplete(0), performed(1), managed(2),defined(3), quantitatively managed(4), andoptimizing(5), with respect to level 0,1,2,3,4,5respectively
  • 42. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 43The Six Capability Levels inCMMi Model
  • 43. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 44
  • 44.  GG- Achieve Specific Goals GP- Perform base Practices© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 45
  • 45.  GG-2- Institutionalized a managed process General Practices:- Establish an organizational policy Plan the process Provide resources Assign responsibility Train People Mange Configuration Identify and involve relevant stakeholders Monitor and control the process Objectively evaluate adherence Review status with higher level management46
  • 46.  GG-3- Institutionalized a defined process General Practice:- Establish a defined process Collect Improvement information© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 47
  • 47.  GG-4- Institutionalized a QuantitativelyManaged process General Practices:- Establish quantitative objective for the process Stabilize Sub-Process performance© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 48
  • 48.  GG-5-Insititionalize an optimizing process General Practice:- Ensure continuous process improvement Correct root causes of Problem© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 49
  • 49. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 50Specific Goals (SG) and Specific Practices(SP)
  • 50.  Organizational Process Focus Organizational Process Definition Organizational Training Organizational Process Performance Organizational innovation and deployments.© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 51
  • 51.  Project Planning Project Monitoring and Control Supplier agreement management Integrated project management Risk Managements Integrated Teaming Integrated Supplier management Quantitative Project management52
  • 52.  Requirement Management Requirements Developments Technical Solution Product Integration Verification Validation© Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 53
  • 53.  Configuration Management Process and Product Quality Assurance Measurement and Analysis Decision Analysis and Resolution Organizational Environment for Integration Causal Analysis and Resolution54
  • 54. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 55
  • 55. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 56
  • 56. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 57
  • 57. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 58
  • 58. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 59
  • 59. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 60
  • 60. © Oxford University Press 2008.All rights reserved. 61

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