Plant Germ Plasm Resource And Its Utilizations.


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Plant Germ Plasm Resource And Its Utilizations.

  2. 2. • • • • • • • • • Introduction Historical Aspect Concept of Plant Germplasm Importance of PGRs Kinds of Germplasm Gene pool system Global Germplasm at a glance Status of Plant Germplasm in Chhattisgarh state Contribution of Dr. Harbhajan Singh And Dr. R.H. Richharia in collection of PGRs. • Germplasm activities •Utilization •Organizations' associated with Germplasm •Conclusion
  3. 3. India has the vast Biodiversity in the world. In the 1920s & 30s Vavilov was active in investigating the origin and diversity of major crop plants (As the first major explorer, collecter and evaluater ) and would crop genetically resources Vavilov established one of the fewest germplasm banks in the world and set the pattern for the systemic introduction of new genetical materials which has become more widespread in recent year, ( Jenning & Cock,1977). The genes required for crop improvements are present in different lines, varieties, strain or populations of the crop species and their relatives. Some useful genes are contributed by the wild relatives of crops. The various lines, strains, populations of crop species and its related wild species constitute the germplasm of the crops.
  4. 4. Sir Otto Frankel coined the term Genetic resources in 1968 to aware the plant breeders of this gradual loss of germ plasm. 1970 In USA initiating action to collect, conserve, evaluate and utilize the plant germ plasm resources ,when southern corn leaf blight was out broke. Alphonse de Candolle was the first botanist who attempt to locate the origin of crop plants,in 1882 he published a book "Origin Of Cultivated plants.” 1926 Nikolai Ivanovich Vivelov ,the Russian explorer,genetist and agronomist organized the world wide exploration for collecting the seeds and propagating material of large number of cultivated crops, wild and related species. 1951 Vavilov proposed eight centre of origin and three sub centre of different plant species. 1961 FAO organized the first International technical meeting on plant exploration & introduction. 1968 The Crop Ecology & Genetic Resources Unit (CEGRU) of FAO was established. 1974 International Board Of Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR) was established in Rome. 1992 IBPGR was transformed to a new autonomous organization International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) to assist the countries (developing). 1905 conservation of PGRs was initiated in India. 1976 NBPGR was established in New Delhi for conservation of various crop species.
  5. 5. The sum total of genes in a crop species is referred as to as genetic resources or gene pool Or gene stock or germplasm. In other word , gene pool refers to a whole library of different alleles of a species. Germ plasm is the basic material with which a plant breeder has to initiate his breeding programme. It is the genetic wealth that a crop has acquired over millions of years of its existence under natural conditions or human cultivation and thus provides the raw material for further improvement through natural or human interference.
  6. 6. i. Germplasm represents the elite genetic variability or diversity available in a crop species. ii. Germ plasm consists of land races, modern cultivars, obsolete cultivars, breeding stocks, wild forms and wild species of cultivated crops. iii. Germplasm includes both cultivated and wild species or relatives of crop plants. iv. Germplasm is collected from the centre of diversity, gene banks, gene sanctuaries, farmer’s fields, markets and seed companies. v. Germ plasm is the basic materials for launching a crop improvement programmes. vi. Germplasm may be indigenous or exotic or alien.
  7. 7. 1. Foundation of an effective crop improvement programmes. 2. Genetic diversity is an essential if high level of productivity are to be sustained. 3. Past breeding efforts have largely been based on relatively small samples of 4. locally adapted cultivars, with the result that as that as state of varietal improvement has advanced the genetic base of the crop has become narrower. 5. Only in recent years has it become apparent that plant breeding programmes with a broad genetic base can help to prevent the rapid and extensive spread of pests and diseases and thus sustain high crop yield . 6. In any crop in order to meet the growing need of varietal improvement and to ensure the effectiveness of breeding , it is essential to assemble preserve and develop the entire array of existing germplasm as for as this is available.
  8. 8. There are five types of the Germplasm can be explain:A.LAND RACESThese are primitive cultivars which had selected and cultivated by the farmers for many generations. Characteristics :1.They are evolved under subsistence agriculture. 2.High level of diversity. 3.Provide high degree of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. 4.It have broads genetic bases 5.Wider adaptability & protection from epidemic of diseases & pests. B. OBSOLETE CULTIVARS – These varieties were developed by systematic breeding efforts, were once commercially cultivated. These are the varieties which were popular earlier and now have been replaced by new varieties. *wheat varieties K65, K68, Pb 591 were most popular traditional tall varieties before introduction of high yielding dwarf Mexican wheat. Continue….
  9. 9. C. MODERN CULTIVARSThe currently cultivated high yielding varieties are referred to as modern cultivars. It is also known as improved cultivars or advanced cultivars. D. ADVANCED BREEDING LINESPre –released plants which have been developed by plant breeders for use in modern scientific plant breeding are known as advanced breeding lines or cultures or stocks. They includes advanced cultures which are not yet ready for release to farmers. E. WILD FORMS OF CULTIVATEDWild forms are the wild species from which crop species were directly derived. Such plants have generally high degree of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and are utilized in breeding programmes for genetic improvement of resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. They can easily cross with cultivated species. Oryza nivara and O.fatua are wild forms of rice crop.
  10. 10. WHAT IS GENE POOL ? A gene pool consists of all the genes and their alleles present in all such individuals, which hybridized or can hybridized with each other. It includes all cultivated cultivars, wild species and wild relatives. GP2 PRIMARY GENE POOL GP3 SECONDARY GENE POOL The genetic materials That leads to partial Intermating is easy Leads to production of fertile Hybrids. Fertility on crossing with It includes plants of the same GP1 is called as secondary or closely related spp. Which Gene pool It includes plants belongs to Produce fertile offspring on Related species Intermating It can cross with GP1,but It designated as GP1 hybrid are sterile & some are fertile TERTIARY GENE POOL The genetic materials which leads to production of Sterile hybrids on crossing with primary gene pool is termed as tertiary gene pool. It includes materials which can be crossed With GP1 ,but the hybrids are sterile Transfer of genes from such materials to GP1 is possible with the help of special breeding techniques.
  11. 11. BASIC CONCEPTS RELATED TO PGRs GENE SANCTUARIES:Area of great genetic diversity are protected from human interference. These protected areas in natural habitat are referred to as gene sanctuaries. Garo Hill of Assam wild relatives of citrus. GENE BANK Gene bank refers to a place or organization where germplasm can be conserved in living state. Gene banks are mainly three types:- 1.SEED GENE BANK A place where germplasm is conserved in the form of seeds is called seed bank. In seed banks there are three types of conservation viz. a)short term for 3-5 yrs. b)Medium term for 10-15 yrs. c)Long term for 50 yrs or more. 2. FIELD GENE BANK Field gene banks also called plant gene bank are area of land in which germplasm collections of growing plants are assembled. It is also called ex-situ conservation of germplasm 3. MERISTEM GENE BANK Germ plasm of asexually propagating species can be conserved in the form of meristems. It is used in conservation of horticultural crops.
  12. 12. GENE BANKS FOR VARIOUS CROPS SN CROPS CENTRES 1 Wheat DWR, Karnal 2 Rice CRRI,Cuttack,IGKV,Raipur 3 Potato CPRI,Shimla 4 Cotton CICR,Nagpur 5 Sugarcane SBI,Coimbatore 6 Tobacco CTRI, Rajahmundry 7 Pulses IIPR, Kanpur 8 Forage crops IGFRI,Jhansi 9 Tuber crops(except potato) CTCRI,Trivendaram ,Kerala 10 Plantation crops CPCRI,Kasargod 11 Oilseeds crop DOR Hyderabad 12 Horticultural crops IIHR, Bangalore 13 Sorghum NRC Sorghum ,Hyderabad 14 Soybean NRC Soybean ,indore 15 Ground nut NRC Groundnut, Junagarh 16 Maize IARI, New Delhi
  13. 13. STATUS OF THE PLANT GERM PLASM RESOURCE AT A GLANCE World – CIP (International Potato Center, Peru.) founded in 1971, maintains the world’s largest genetic bank of potatoes that is 7000 accessions of native, wild & improved varieties. 4300 from Andes and 180 wild potato ,it is bitter to eat. IRRI, Los Banos,Phillipines- International rice gene bank, the world largest rice genetic diversity that is 110000 different types of rice from all over the world.
  14. 14. GERM PLASM HOLDING IN ICRISAT GENE BANK CROP ACTIVE BASE ACCESSION HELD IN TRUST Sorghum 37904 34313 36771 Pearl millet 21594 20343 21563 Chickpea 20140 16977 17124 Pigeon pea 13632 11794 12389 Groundnut 15419 12640 14803 Finger millet 5949 4620 5949 Foxtail millet 1535 1054 1535 Prosomillet 842 576 835 Little millet 466 384 462 Kodo millet 658 630 656 Barn yard millet 743 487 743 118882 103818 113830 Total The ICRISAT gene bank ,Patancheru, India currently conserves 118882 accessions of the five mandate crops& six small millets from 144 countries.
  15. 15. In India, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR),New Delhi ,maintains large collections of Sorghum sp., Pennisetum sp., wheat, barley, oat, rice, maize and other agricultural and horticultural crops.
  16. 16. Table: Germ plasm accessions conserved in the NBPGR (December31,2006) Sn Crops Accession (no.) Seed bank Cryogene bank In vitro gene bank 1 Cereals 134421 239 2 Millets & forage 48657 287 3 Pseudo cereals 5492 76 4 Grain legumes 52844 632 5 Oilseeds 47515 470 6 Fibre crops 9546 64 7 Vegetables 21201 432 531 8 Fruits & nuts 265 2123 650 9 Medicinal ,aromatic& Narcotic crops 5333 805 357 10 Spices & condiments 1632 115 346 11 Agroforestry & forestry 2053 1636 12 Plantation & industrial crops 13 Duplicate safety samples 10235 Total 339194 Grand Total 789 20 7922 1904 349020
  17. 17. Ambikapur centre Raipur centre Jagdalpur centre
  18. 18. Chhattisgarh ,the newly emerged state of India, popularly known as “Rice Bowl” of the country due to rich rice diversity exist in the state. Dr. R.H. Richharia and researchers of the Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur (C.G.) have collected the number of rice germplasm accessions and made university rice in the conservation of rice genetic resources. PGRs in Raipur Sn. Crop Accessions 1 Rice 23250 2 Lathyrus 1900 3 Arhar 4 Linseed 5 Lobia 63 6 Dolicus bean 36 7 Gram 23 8 Ivy gourd 32 9 Tuber crops-Elephant foot (27),sweet potato(93), tapioca (8), Tikhur (2), Kewu kand Arbi (21) 143 10 Spices- Ami zinger (1),Ami turmeric (1), Domestic turmeric (2) 11 Tamarind 45 1350 4 11
  19. 19. 12 Brinjal 78 13 Barbatti 18 PGRs in Jagdalpur Sn Crop Accessions 1 Minor millets-kodo (35), kutki (32), ragi (15) 103 2 Oilseeds-toria (73), mustard (16), caster (15) 104 3 Tubers –elephant foot (39), sweet potato (50), tapioca (36), arbi (121), kewu kand (10) ,yams (129) 385 4 Cashew 9 PGRs in Ambikapur Sn crops Accessions 1 Maize 46 2 Litchi 9
  20. 20. Dr. Harbhajan singh was the most distinguished plant explorer, renowned as the “indian vavilov”. He imparted a distinct identity to the discipline plant genetic resources in india. Dr. Singh introduced large germplasm of wheat and rice that contributed to the green revolution in india. He also introduced several new species such as soybean, sunflower, low chilling and temperate fruits and a wide range of ornamentals. The late Dr. R H Richharia was one of the leading experts on rice in India. He documented and collected an amazing 19,000 rice varieties during his career. As per his estimation, India was home to 200,000 varieties of rice. The late Dr. R H Richharia was one of the leading experts on rice in India. It is also relevant to point out here that Dr. Richharia's collection of 19,000 rice varieties is today in the hands of the Indira Gandhi Agricultural University (IGAU), Raipur, Chhatisgarh, which has since then added (only) another 5,000 varieties. The official number of samples existing with IGAU is therefore 23250.
  21. 21. There are six important activities related to plant genetics resources: A.Exploration & collection B.Conservation C.Evaluation D.Documentation E.Distribution F.Utilization A. EXPLORATION & COLLECTION Exploration refers to collection trips and collection refers to tapping og genetic diversity from various sources and assembling the same at one place. This is a highly scientific process. In India, plant exploration and collection activities have been more systematized after the creation of the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) in 1976, between 1946 to July 1976, a total of 31,235 germplasm collections comprising cereals, millets, legumes, oilseeds, vegetables, fiber yielding and other economic plants including wild relatives, were made. Process of exploration and collection Source of collection > Priority of collection > Agencies of collection > Method of Collection >Method of sampling >Sample size
  22. 22. Types of seed collection Based on the use and conservation seed collections are of three type Type Particulars Base collection It includes maximum number of accessions available in a crop Active collection Germ plasm is actively utilized in breeding programmes Working collection These collection are frequently utilized by breeders in their crop improvement programmes Conservation upto Stored at Moisture content long term 50 years or more -18 to 20˚C hermatically sealed Seed dried to 5% moisture content & have >85% viablity Medium term 8-10 years 0˚C 8% Short term 3-5 years 5-10˚C 8-10%
  23. 23. EXPLORATION PROGRAMME a) Planning b) Making contacts wuth local research organization c) Gathering equipment and preparation d) Meeting with local researchers /government e) Sorting out of collected samples f) Reporting to the headquarters g) Preparation and publication of reports h) Delivering /distributing collected samples Range of activity- by car cover 100-150 km/day whereas on foot 10 km/day is standard for exploring and collecting the germ plasm .
  24. 24. MERITS OF EXPLORATION AND COLLECTION 1.Collection helps in tapping crop genetic diversity and assembling the same at one place. 2.We got material of special interest during the exploration trips. 3.We come across a new species during the process of collection. DEMERITS OF EXPLORATION AND COLLECTION 1.Collection of germplasm especially from other countries, sometimes leads to entry of new disease, new insects and weeds. 2.Collection is a tedious job. 3.Transportation of huge collections also poses difficulties in exploration and collection.
  25. 25. B. CONSERVATION Conservation refers to protection of genetic diversity of crop plant from genetic erosion. “FUTURE OF OUR NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY DEPENDS ON OUR ABILITY TO CONSERVE BIOLOGICAL WEALTH.” -- M.S. SWAMINATHAN METHODS: There are two methods of germplasm conservation A.In-Situ conservation -- under natural habitat B.Ex-situ --- approaches require collection and systematic long-term storage of seeds outsides the natural habitats of species. Components of ex-situ conservation •Seed gene bank (at - 20o C) •Cryo bank under liquid (at -165 to -196o C) • In-vitro tissue culture bank
  26. 26. Seed can be conserved under I.Long term- 50 to 100 years II.Medium term- 10-15 years III.Short term – 3-5 years storage conditions Roberts (1973) has classified seeds into two groups for storage purpose: Orthodox seeds Seeds which can be dried to low moisture content and stored at low temperature without losing their viability. As- corn ,wheat, rice papaya, chickpea etc. Recalcitrant seeds Seeds which show very drastic loss in viability with a decrease in moisture content below 12 to 13 %.
  27. 27. C. EVALUATION Evaluation refers to screening of germplasm in respect of morphological, genetical, economic, Biochemical ,physiological, pathological and entomological attributes. Why germ plasm evaluation is an essential ? • To identify gene sources for resistance to biotic & abiotic stresses, earliness, dwarfness productivity and quality characters. • To classify the germ plasm in various groups. • To get a clear picture about the significance of individual germplasm. Documentation refers to compilation, analysis, classification, storage and dissemination of information. Database management system-relational database management system (RDBMS) In gene bank RDBMS is used
  28. 28. The specific germplasm lines are supplied to the users on demand for utilization in the crop improvement programmes There are some trait specific germplasm and wild species introduced in India and distributed by the several centres Sn crop Country Specific trait Distribution by 1 Hordeum vulgare L. EC 657889 CANADA Resistant to spot form of neck blotch DWR, Karnal 2 Oryza sativa L. a.EC 659913-14 USA Improved resistant to sheath blight NBPGR, CRRI b.EC 657109-118 France Blast resistant TNAU, c.EC 659921 Vietnam Drought tolerant NBPGR Nigeria Resistant to imp. Disease in low lands DMR,New Delhi NRC soybean USA Resistant to soybean mosaic 3 Zea mays L. EC659915-17 4 Glycine max L. EC638228
  29. 29. Distribution involves supply of representative seed samples from the gene bank in response to requests from users. • Distribute seeds only from active or working collections. • Send the seeds in a way that they reach their destination in good condition. • The environmental conditions during transport can be detrimental to seed quality. Therefore distribute seeds in moisture proof envelopes. Standard quantity of seed distributed per accession from ICRISAT gene bank
  30. 30. MASTER FILE DURING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GERMPLASM Reference number: Reference number assigned in sequence starting from 1 each year. Crop: Crop name. Consignee: Consignee’s last name followed by abbreviated first and second names. Designation of consignee: Designation of the consignee, e.g. Plant Breeder, Assistant Professor, etc. Organization: Name of the organization in full. Address: Address of the consignee. Location: City or town where the organization is located. Country: Country name of consignee. User status: Status of organization requesting germplasm (eg, commercial company, national institute, non-governmental organization, individual, etc). Date of request: Date on which the request was received. Date supply: Date on which seed samples were sent. Number of samples: Number of samples sent. Purpose: Purpose for which seeds were requested.
  31. 31. UTILIZATION OF PLANT GERM PLASM RESOURCES Expanding the characterization ,evaluation and numbers of core collection to facilitate use in: 1.Increasing genetic enhancement and base broadening effects. 2.Promoting sustainable agriculture through diversification of crop production and broader diversity in crops. 3.Promoting development and commercialization under utilized crops and species. 4.Supporting seed production and distribution. 5.Developing new markets for local varieties and diversity rich products, institution and capacity building. 6.Building strong national programmes. 7.Promoting network for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. 8.Developing monitoring and early warning system for loss of plant genetic resource for food and agriculture. 9.Expanding and improving education and training. 10.Promising public awareness of the value of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture conservation and use 11.Access to PGRs now based on the principle of “Sovereign rights of Nations” as promulgate under the legally binding conservation of Biological Diversity (CBD),1992 12.Used as a variety, as a parent in the hybridization and also used to tarnsfer resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses.
  32. 32. MEDICINAL USE OF RICE GERM PLASM Sn. Accession no. Variety Collected from uses 1 IC390847 Ghathuwan Abhanpur(C.G.) Suffering from joint’s pain 2 IC390848 Bhejari Simga (C.G.) Fed to cow to remove placenta after delivery with crushed linseed 3 IC390850 Maharaji Ghughari (MP) Removing the weakness in mother caused by bleeding after delivery 4 IC390851 Saraiphool Nainpur (MP) Removing the weakness in human beings
  33. 33. ORGANIZATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PLANT GERM PLASM INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS: 1.Consultative groups on agricultural research institutes(CGAIR) 2.International Plant Genetic Resource Institute (IPGRI), Rome, Italy. 3.International Potato Centre (CIP), Lema,Peru. 4.IRRI,Phillipines. 5.ICRISAT, Hyderabad ,India NATIOANAL ORGANIZATIONS : 1.NBPGR,Pusa ,New Delhi 2.CRRI, Cuttack, Odisa etc.
  34. 34. The plant genetic resources are the key component of any agricultural production system , indeed of any ecosystem . It ensure the genetic diversity is an essential if high level of productivity are to be sustained. For development to be sustainable ,conservation and use of genetic diversity must be at its core. Because the world is dynamic ,this need for diversity is continuous. The benefits that would come from such conservation and sustainable use of of plant genetic resources would be global ,and if these resources are not conserved everyone stands to lose.