The implications of trust
on moderating learner’s
online interactions
A socio-technical Model of Trust
@ Sónia Sousa, 2012...
3
Research goal
Contemplate the trust role in supporting
interactions
WHY TRUST….
5
Because
• Trust is
– a crucial element in human relations
• Trust has an important role in
– Assuring the success of a i...
6
Because
• Trust engenders more efficient collaboration
– Trusting
• Influences the level of commitment
• Reduces the lev...
The research…
8
The research
• The complex and dynamic nature of this
research
– is supported by an ongoing action research
procedure
• ...
9
Research procedure
What is trust?
Extensive
literature review
Trust concept
map
A social and
behavioral model
of trust
E...
How?
11
Stage 1 (the process)
• Identify most common trust notions
– Design a concept map
• Provide a unified view of possible ...
12
The unified view
• Trust multidisciplinary nature
– Makes possible to find a considerable
debate about
• What trust is
...
13
strong incentives tobelieve that determinateperson, service or tool isin fact trustworthy
Capacity to deal
with uncerta...
14
• People's trust predispositions lies on
– how he/she perceives the uncertainty the situation,
– how he/she believes th...
15
How to determine
if a situation is in fact
trustworthy?
By observing the trust warranty signs
Bacharach et. al., 2007
16
The trust attributes identification
1. What are the incentives to be involve
– Lead to believe that trustee actions wil...
17
1. What lead to believe in trustee actions
– Predisposition to trust
• Inclination to depend on another with a felling ...
18
3. Level of commitment in the relation (cooperation)
– Benevolence
• Observing attitudes of caring about the benefits o...
19Trust social-technical model
Reciprocity
Competency
Benevolency
Predictability
Honesty
Trust
Intentions to
relate
Relati...
20
Validation
• Survey analysis explores individuals
– underlying attitudes, behaviours and beliefs when build
a online re...
21
Trust social orientation
[Q1] What make someone trust in a particular person
online?
– Belief that others are friendly;...
22
Trust sharing orientation
[Q2] What is the most important feature for be willing to
share information online
– Believe ...
23
Trust interpersonal activities
[Q3] What makes an important condition for
communicate online?
– Need for support
– Shar...
24
Results (conclusions)
• Words associated with trust beliefs towards social
orientation
– Reciprocity and respect
– Reli...
25
Future work (Ongoing work)
• Provide a tool for the educators to
– Monitor the evolution of students' trust through
tim...
26
Future work (Ongoing work)
• Proposal
– Design a strategic driven analysis which correlates
• observed trust attributes...

Thank you for listening
28Results (concept map)
29
Trust
Topic
Willingness to
depend
Subjective
probability
Trustworthiness
Reciprocity Cooperation
Willingness to be
vuln...
30
How to…
Agudo 2009; Gambetta 1998; O’ Hara
2009; Constantine, 2006; Mcknight, 1996
• Observe the trust warranty signs
–...
31
@ Sónia Sousa, 2012
[FR]
[Q1]
[Q2]
[Q3]
[FM]
[PC] [R] [C] [B] [P] [H]
[TS]
[WF]
[AQ]
[SR]
[PC] [R] [C] [B] [P] [H]
[PC]...
32
References
Sousa, Sonia; Lamas, D. and Dias, P. (2011). The interrelation between communities, trust and their online s...
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Sousa, Sonia; Lamas, David; Dias, Paulo (2012). The Implications of Trust on Moderating Learner’s Social Interactions: A socio-technical Model of Trust

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The main goal is to present and validate a socio-technical model of trust. This model aims to depict the implications of trust on moderating learners online interactions.
This work main motivation is focused on design ways to promote a stronger acceptance sense of community
among learners, by giving emphasis to a more active learning through collaboration and social construction
understanding.
This model aims to eventually provide the means to detect potential trust violations within an online relationship,
helping educators to move towards practices of reconciliation. This socio-technical trust model takes
into account individuals trust predispositions and other five trust attributes and establishes their role on building
relationships, and in developing underlying attitudes, behaviours and beliefs of an learning community.

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  • Stage 1 aims to identify and provides a broader understanding of what trust is and what it represents. This is achieved based on a rich set of multidisciplinary notions on trust.Stage 2 explores the concepts related to online learning communities. This is achieved by an extensive literature review complemented by a participatory concept map design procedure.
  • Connected notionsTrust Vs Expectancy Vs Risk
  • Stage 3 explores the effects of trust in online learning communities and on their activity patterns. It includes a survey and an ethnographic observation procedure
  • Sousa, Sonia; Lamas, David; Dias, Paulo (2012). The Implications of Trust on Moderating Learner’s Social Interactions: A socio-technical Model of Trust

    1. 1. The implications of trust on moderating learner’s online interactions A socio-technical Model of Trust @ Sónia Sousa, 2012 CSEDU
    2. 2. 3 Research goal Contemplate the trust role in supporting interactions
    3. 3. WHY TRUST….
    4. 4. 5 Because • Trust is – a crucial element in human relations • Trust has an important role in – Assuring the success of a interaction • Influencing individuals predisposition to interact and share • With trust – activities proceed more smoothly, – actions are more decisive, – people work with greater confidence. (e.g. Coleman, 1988; Weber, 2003) (e.g. Yan, 2010; Mcknight, 1996; Constantine, 2006, Preece, 2004)
    5. 5. 6 Because • Trust engenders more efficient collaboration – Trusting • Influences the level of commitment • Reduces the level of uncertainty • Connected with the believe that trustee actions will in fact fulfill their needs. • Trust is a fundamental conditions for influencing – Stable concerted social actions – Individual's active participation – Cooperation (e.g. Fukuyama, 1995; Luhmann, 2000; Gambetta, 1998)
    6. 6. The research…
    7. 7. 8 The research • The complex and dynamic nature of this research – is supported by an ongoing action research procedure • This presentation contemplates efforts 1: To understand Trust 2: To understand the problem in its context
    8. 8. 9 Research procedure What is trust? Extensive literature review Trust concept map A social and behavioral model of trust Extensive literature review Trust concept map Modeling Trust
    9. 9. How?
    10. 10. 11 Stage 1 (the process) • Identify most common trust notions – Design a concept map • Provide a unified view of possible trust implications in – today’s social learning structures • Identify a Trust social-technical model – Which, • Examines and describe the trust influence in learner’s interactions.
    11. 11. 12 The unified view • Trust multidisciplinary nature – Makes possible to find a considerable debate about • What trust is • What it represents • How can influence a determine context • But, in one thing most agrees on – Trust does have an important role in forming relations • Either when examined from a more interpersonal perspective • Or when analyzed from a more social system perspective in terms of literature research or of everyday use
    12. 12. 13 strong incentives tobelieve that determinateperson, service or tool isin fact trustworthy Capacity to deal with uncertainty about future interaction • Trust represents, – a process of believing • Identify if he/she is capable of doing what is expected – a degree of uncertainty • While some are more willing to take the risks others don't • The risk is a constant in the relationship – The presence of trust will reduce the risk of group interaction failure. Trust (associated notions) weber03, Garfinkel, Luhmann00, Lewis85 Level of commitment of both parts Reflection
    13. 13. 14 • People's trust predispositions lies on – how he/she perceives the uncertainty the situation, – how he/she believes that trustee actions will in fact fulfill their needs; and – how he/she is committed to the process. • Trust depends much on – How we determine if a situation is in fact trustworthy? O’hara 2009 Coleman 1988, Gambetta1998, Luhmann 2000 Trust (Associated notions) Reflection
    14. 14. 15 How to determine if a situation is in fact trustworthy? By observing the trust warranty signs Bacharach et. al., 2007
    15. 15. 16 The trust attributes identification 1. What are the incentives to be involve – Lead to believe that trustee actions will in fact fulfill their needs. 2. Available trust warranty signs – how he or she perceives the uncertainty the situation. 3. The reliability of the trust warranty signs – how committed are the involving parties to the relation (cooperation). 4. The trust in the technology factor – Individuals reactions, intentions to use and actual use
    16. 16. 17 1. What lead to believe in trustee actions – Predisposition to trust • Inclination to depend on another with a felling of relative security • Level of commitment of both towards the situation 2. How he or she perceives the situation – Reciprocity • Believing that other’s have confidence on my actions increases my motivation to trust and my disposition to trust – Predictability • Be able to perceiving others' intentions in a given context • If the attitudes and behaviors match the expectations and performance – Honesty • Open and transparent attitudes ensures security that person is not deceiving and will act accordingly – As predictability, honesty is a belief that depends on perceiving nature of the intentions of others The trust attributes identification
    17. 17. 18 3. Level of commitment in the relation (cooperation) – Benevolence • Observing attitudes of caring about the benefits of others • 'kindness' raises trustworthiness – but, it needs for a declaration of good intentions which results in the increasing of confidence on others – Competency • Confidence that all parts involved will act in a competently and dutifully way • Online identities and reputations – background professional paths and achievements – photos, personal descriptions and aims, groups – style of writing, how they use the communication tool to interact and share 4. Technology factor (reactions, intentions to use and actual use) – Predictability • Observing signs of interface stability (security) • User control (privacy) – Competency • Tool efficiency The trust attributes identification
    18. 18. 19Trust social-technical model Reciprocity Competency Benevolency Predictability Honesty Trust Intentions to relate Relations Trust Predisposition Beliefs Attitudes
    19. 19. 20 Validation • Survey analysis explores individuals – underlying attitudes, behaviours and beliefs when build a online relationships • Participants – 480 from those 340 were use in data analysis • 89 weren’t consider invalid due to be incomplete – All participants work on education contexts • Procedure – survey accounted for 2 main groups • Demographic and background information • Connecting the trust attributes with individuals’ expectations when interact online – Social, sharing and interaction dimension
    20. 20. 21 Trust social orientation [Q1] What make someone trust in a particular person online? – Belief that others are friendly; – Belief that all parts will act and behave as expected (share ways of doing things) – Belief that we share common social values and identities • New trust sociability attributes – Reciprocity and respect – Reliability – Honesty, be kind, be friendly and sympathy – Empathy, common shared value, identities and interests, be a known person
    21. 21. 22 Trust sharing orientation [Q2] What is the most important feature for be willing to share information online – Believe in the truthful nature of the sharing interaction – Privacy awareness – be sure that the shared information is not threaten in some manner • believe that is safe to share (i.e. can control who will read or have access to the information) • New trust sharing orientation attribute – Honesty, transparency – Reliability – Respect – Empathy – Predisposition to share
    22. 22. 23 Trust interpersonal activities [Q3] What makes an important condition for communicate online? – Need for support – Sharing similar interests – Secure and predictable communication environments • New trust interpersonal activities attribute – Honesty, transparency – Secureness and predictability – Share common interests – Receive support
    23. 23. 24 Results (conclusions) • Words associated with trust beliefs towards social orientation – Reciprocity and respect – Reliability – Honesty – Empathy, be kind, be friendly and sympathy – Common shared value, identities and interests, be a known person • Words associated with trust attitudes towards sharing – Honesty, transparency – Reliability – Respect – Empathy – Predisposition to share • Words associated with trust beliefs towards interaction – Honesty, transparency – Secureness and predictability – Share common interests – Receive support Reciprocity Competency Benevolency Predictability Honesty Trust Predisposition
    24. 24. 25 Future work (Ongoing work) • Provide a tool for the educators to – Monitor the evolution of students' trust through time • Enabling to apply interventions to restore or increase participation • A tool that allow educators to – Construct trustful interactive learning scenarios – By enabling, • The detection of possible trust violations and allowing to move towards practices of reconciliation.
    25. 25. 26 Future work (Ongoing work) • Proposal – Design a strategic driven analysis which correlates • observed trust attributes with learners trust perceptions – in three main course stages (before, during and after) • Procedure – Identify instruments and mechanisms to Observe and Monitor trust • Based on the proposed trust model – What to observe and monitor • External factors – the course design, planning and privacy issues • Collaboration factors – Setting the climate, social Interactions, learning and sharing activities • Community factors – learners guidance, supporting discussions, learners supported achievements, teaching presence
    26. 26.  Thank you for listening
    27. 27. 28Results (concept map)
    28. 28. 29 Trust Topic Willingness to depend Subjective probability Trustworthiness Reciprocity Cooperation Willingness to be vulnerable Beliefs Expectations State Motivations Intentions Capabilities Reciprocity Facets Pre-requisite Process Rational Irrational Time frame Situation (context) Emotional level of trust Cognitive level of trust Atributes Topic Social life context Represented by Individuals Organizations Communication media Is represented by individuals and by organization settings Topic Agents Definition Trust represents the trustor's decision to trust the trustee Trustor X Atributes Beliefs Expectations Situation specific trusting behaviour The one that trusts another Trustee Y Atributes (predispositions) motivations intentions capabilities to act to reciprocate The one who or which is trusted Generic object Specific object Trust (associated words)
    29. 29. 30 How to… Agudo 2009; Gambetta 1998; O’ Hara 2009; Constantine, 2006; Mcknight, 1996 • Observe the trust warranty signs – Assessing Direct observable signs • e.g. physiognomic aspects and gestual signs • e.g. the communication tool, language and style of writing – Assessing Indirect observable signs • e.g. signs that link trust vs distrust attitudes, • e.g. signs that link attitudes with the level of commitment and expectations to fulfill initial goals Incentives to beinvolve in a riskysituation(predisposition to trust) the reliability of the communication process
    30. 30. 31 @ Sónia Sousa, 2012 [FR] [Q1] [Q2] [Q3] [FM] [PC] [R] [C] [B] [P] [H] [TS] [WF] [AQ] [SR] [PC] [R] [C] [B] [P] [H] [PC] [R] [C] [B] [P] [H] [Q1] [Q2] [Q3] [PC] [R] [C] [B] [P] [H] [PC] [R] [C] [B] [P] [H] [PC] [R] [C] [B] [P] [H]
    31. 31. 32 References Sousa, Sonia; Lamas, D. and Dias, P. (2011). The interrelation between communities, trust and their online social patterns. In Xia, F., Chen, Z., Pan, G., Yang, L. T., and Ma, J., editors, SCA2011 – International conference on Social Computing and its Applications, pages 980–986. IEEE Computer Society Sousa, S. and Lamas, D. (2011). Emerging trust patterns in online communities. In CPSCom 2011: The 4th IEEE International Conference on Cyber, Physical and Social Computing. IEEE Computer Society. Sousa, S., Lamas, D., and Dias, P. (2011b). A framework for understanding online learning communities. In Leung, H., Popescu, E., Cao, Y., Lau, R., and Nejdl, W., editors, ECEL 2011 - 7th International Conference on e- Learning, pages 1000—1004. Academic Publishers. Vasconcelos, J. B., Sousa, S., Lamas, D. R., and Shmorgun, I. (2011). Tracking online learning communities using ontologies. In Ribiere, V. and Worasinchai, L., editors, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning, page 850. Academic Publisher. @ Sónia Sousa, 2012

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