Salahuddin Saiphy, IRRAD
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  • 1. Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) (An initiative of the S.M. Sehgal Foundation) Finding Innovative Solution for Poverty Eradication in India through sustainable water management models Photo: Check dam in Patkhori Salahuddin Saiphy Program Leader- Water Management, IRRAD, Gurgaon Together, We Empower Rural India Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 2. Mewat at a Glance Population: 1.1 Million Villages: 431 Rain fall: 594 mm (Non-uniformly distribution) Primary water source: Groundwater (78% - Saline, TDS: >3500 ppm) • High gradient and low retention time for runoff • Poor ground water recharging and • Excessive pumping for domestic and agricultural use • Depleting fresh water aquifers • Encroachment of saline ground water Saline Fresh Ground Water F Saline Groundwater resh Ground Water Institute of Rural Research And Development (An initiative of S M Sehgal Foundation) Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Slide: 2 of 8
  • 3. A glimpse of water scarcity in Mewat Drinking water sources Limited water sources Waterfamily sizes Large contamination Village streets 1/20/2014 School drinking water tank Wastage of water supply School toilets Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Women drudgery Slide: 3 of 8
  • 4. ‘Mission- Water Collection’ 1/20/2014 Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Slide: 4 of 8
  • 5. Water crisis in villages Fresh water village supply water to 8 villages Ground water depleting fast Community resist water sharing Advancing Saline and Shrinking Fresh Ground Water Table Aravali Hills Aravali Hills Advancing saline and shrinking fresh ground water pocket Ghagas Ghagas Karheda Karheda 2002 Saline Ground Water Moderate Saline Ground Water Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) 2008 Fresh Ground Water Slide: 5 of 8
  • 6. Unfit water for consumption  Ground water depleting @ 250-1000 mm per year  Small pockets of sweet water  Drinking water unfit for consumption (WHO standards) – Nitrates : > 122% Blue Baby syndrome, renal failure, hemoglobin reduction, neurological problems – Fluorides : > 50% Dental problems, abnormal bone growth in spine and crippling – Iron : > 233% Pancreatic dysfunction, gastro dysfunction, affects liver and kidney – Biological contamination: Typhoid, Cholera, dysentery, Hepatitis, Poliomyelitis Institute of Rural Research And Development (An initiative of S M Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Sehgal Foundation) 6
  • 7. Major issues Water salinity and contamination high concentration of chemical and biological contaminants low-lying saline aquifers and saline soil encroaching over fresh Low recharging and high depletion rate Unsafe disposal of waste water Lack of water consciousness Inequitable distribution and faulty distribution network Unreliable water supply Dry spells span for 120 days. During these days, women have to travel 3-4 kilometres to fetch water, adding to their drudgery Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 8. Address the problem through ‘ridge to valley’ approach Contour Trenches Aravali hills Injecting Wells Gully Plugs Small masonry structure Recharging Well Agriculture Area Farm Bunding Stream Revived Traditional Structure Deep plowing Roof water harvesting Village Check Dam Taps Campaign Soak Pits Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 9. Snapshot of interventions……… Rangala Rajpur Series of check dams (1.4 km long) in Rangala Rajpur Check dam in Santhawari Pond in Jalalpur Check dam in Kotla Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 10. Innovative solutions Replacing compacted clay core by thin masonry core wall saved 20% of cost and time CHECK DAM STRUCTURE X-section Ground Level Earth filling Masonry wall Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Earth filling
  • 11. Innovative solutions Replacing mass cement masonry by dry stone masonry saved up to 30% of structure cost SPILL-OVERSTRUCTURE X-section Cushion chamber Dry stone masonry R/R stone masonry PCC Chain link mesh Down stream guide wall Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 12. Innovative solutions Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 13. Small intervention, big impact Treating Culverts for rain water harvesting • Run-off collection on upstream side • Recharging the collected run-off • Relief from: o Erosion of top fertile soil o Gulley formation in agriculture fields Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Slide: 13 of 8
  • 14. Small intervention, big impact Nallah bunds • Reduce runoff velocity • Minimize soil erosion • Increase water percolation Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Slide: 14 of 8
  • 15. Conservation is the key Converting abandoned wells into recharge structure Small structure to raise water level Water diverted to nearby abandoned well Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) 15 Slide: 15 of 8
  • 16. Construction by local artisans: Recharge wells Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 17. Patkhori: a replicable RWH system model for schools • Harvested rainwater based water supply for 325 students & teachers of Patkhori school. • Water availability improves school attendance specially for girls. • Current students strength is 480 The model is being replicated by: • Education department Haryana - 501 schools • Tribal Department Chattisgarh – 25 Ashrams Prefilter Storage Tanks Biosand Filter 25000 ltr Filter Soak Pit Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Soak Pit Cost Rs 2.3 lakhs
  • 18. Patkhori: a replicable RWH system model for schools Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 19. 3-Tier rain water harvesting system Answer to water scarcity - Individual, cluster tanks fed by roof water used for drinking and cooking - Community tanks fed by roof water and filtered pond water used for other domestic needs Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 20. Community water tank: Min. wastage, max. gain Before Addressing women drudgery After Objective: • Ensuring 24 hr availability • Equitable distribution • Minimize wastage • Avoid contamination • Resource conservation (water, energy, time etc.) Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 21. Waste water accumulation Typical village streets Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 22. Safe Disposal of Waste Water Conservation, Safety, environmental hygiene and comfort Silt Trap Floating Scum From Drain To Soak Pit Sediments Before Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) After
  • 23. Disposing waste water naturally Many villages made completely waste water free by Soak pits Mundaka, Untaka, Raipuri, Shadipur, Jalalpur, Mamlika …. Soak well Soak trenches Conservation, Safety, environmental hygiene and comfort Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 24. Waste water free streets in Mundaka Before Photo: Village streets full of waste water After Photo: Same street after construction of soak pits Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 25. Creating fresh water pocket in saline aquifer Converted dry schools into water sustainable Storage & Recharging Tank Pre-filter Hand Pump Water storage Bio-sand filter Fresh Water Saline ground water TDS at village Khedli Khurd • Groundwater - 1700 PPM • RWH pocket: 52-67 PPM Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 26. Bio-sand Filter Keeping the water borne diseases away Removes: • • Turbidity, Microbiologic contaminants Iron and with simple adaptation arsenic Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 27. Reviving Ancient Baoli /step well (Mughal period) Caring for the heritage Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 28. Community involvement Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 29. Repairing of damaged check dam through local community Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 30. Rejuvenating forest through social fencing Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 31. Outcome Intervention Groundwater replenishment through check dams and other structures Annual Water 1,36,85,403 harvesting (kL/year) Rainwater Wastewater harvesting in recycling schools and other buildings Total 12,589 1,38,39,846 Enough to serve Type of village 141,854 Water Villages can Demand(KL/yr/vill.) be served Rain-fed village: Domestic water demand for 2000 people+animal@70 lpcd 51,100 271 Irrigated village: Irrgn. water demand (incl mustard, pearl millet & one vegetable crop) 300 acres@ 1120KL/acre + domestic water demand 336,000 36 Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 32. Impact Steady improvements in groundwater levels Trend of groundwater levels (metres) at Bangali Khola- Kotla Jan. mar. Apl May Jun July Aug. Sept Oct Nov. Dec. 12.3 12.6 12.7 12.8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 17.65 16.97 17.74 17.65 17.7 * Many dry wells have water today, salinity also regressed Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) 16.8 16.2
  • 33. Impact on water levels Trend of ground water level in Bhond- Nooru well (2010-12) Trend of ground water in Kotla -Masjid Kui (2010-12) Mar/10 Jul/10 Nov/10 Mar/11 Jul/11 Nov/11 Mar/10 Mar/12 Nov/10 Mar/11 Jul/11 Nov/11 Mar/12 0 5 10 15 14.4 20 19.89 15.4 16.2 16.6 15.2 15.5 15.95 Water level in metres (bgl) 0 19.56 5 10 15 14.2 20 25 25.4 30 35 30.8 24.8 29.3 25 Trend of ground water levels in Agon - Abdul well (2010-12) Mar/10 Jul/10 Nov/10 Mar/11 Jul/11 Nov/11 Mar/12 0 Water level in metres (bgl) Water level in metres (bgl) Jul/10 2 4 6 8 8.3 10 8.1 7.6 8.4 7.6 7.95 12 14 13.2 16 13.85 Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) 8.2 25.2 25.9 24.9 25.6
  • 34. Impact on water quality 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1846 Jun-11 1502 994.7 500 TDS Desired limit Jun-12 935 607 362.5 349 200 300 M. Alkalinity Total hardness 538 272.3 194 75 250 74.7 50 107 Magnesium Calcium Chlorides 200 107 52 Sulphates 186 45108.8 Nitrates Ground Water quality of Qayyum Hand pump in Dhadola Khurd (2011-2012) 18 17 16 Jun-11 14 12 mg/l mg/l Ground Water quality of Qayyum Hand pump in Dhadola Khurd (2011-2012) Desired limit Jun-12 10 10 6.93 8 6 7 7.24 7.3 5 5 3.8 4 1.14 2 0.3 0.88 1.29 1 0 Coliform per100 ml pH Turbidity Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Iron Flouride 1.1
  • 35. Impact on water quality Ground water quality of Daud Hand pump in Raniyala Patakpur (2011-2012) November 11 3500 November 12 3110 3000 2640 2500 mg/l Permissible Limits 2153 2000 1560 1385 1500 1000 500 500 0 1278 452 376.2 200 300 1108 452 376.2 0 901.8 227 0 50 180 241 207.9 75 639.8 522 250 12.9 0 25.7 0 Conductivity Total dissolved M. Alkalinity Total hardness Temporary solids hardness Permanent hardness Magnesium Calcium Chlorides Silica Ground water quality of New water supply Tube well in Dhadoli Kalan (2011-2012) November 11 1200 mg/l 1000 November 12 1092 992 684 649 500 800 600 331 270.2 200 400 200 Permissible Limits 0 489 400.7 300 331 270.2 0 158 130.5 0 57 5041.2 99.87590.9 250 175 120.4 Magnesium Calcium Chlorides 13.3 0 20.4 0 Conductivity Total dissolved M. Alkalinity Total hardness Temporary solids hardness Permanent hardness Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Silica
  • 36. Institutional Mechanism Working together with community to combat water crisis Water Management Group Composition Representation from all sects of village (religion, cast, economy, street/mohalla, sex etc) Role Community involved in need assessment Active involvement in – • Need assessment • Solution design • Site selection • Implementation process • Monitoring Responsible for operation & maintenance Community discussing water project blueprint Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 37. Water literacy campaign Jal Chetna Yatra (Water Literacy Rally) Water literacy sessions and Slogan/ paintings Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 38. Water Literacy ensures technology adoption “Jal Chetna Yatra”(Water Literacy Campaign) Water Literacy through street plays Empowering and motivating the marginalized Demonstrating technologies Inclusion & Empowerment: Women-led Water Management Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 39. Simple and user friendly technology Promoting technology adoption Technology • development • adaption • demystification Training students for preparing Bio-sand filter • dissemination • promotion Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 40. Building awareness among masses Community Radio- Alfaz-e-Mewat Reach villages: Over 183 in Mewat; 10 + in Rajasthan Programming Hours: 12 hours of daily broadcast Community Participation: 10000 caller database Building Awareness: 1st step towards solution Water focused programs • Tohfa –e-Kudrat- Jal Jangal Aur kheti (Water, Land & Agriculture)- 30 minutes daily (repeat everyday) • Guftgu- Expert Interviews- 30 minutes daily with repeat Has covered programs on watershed management, government schemes, water saving agriculture practices. • Saaf , Safai Aur Sehet (Health & Hygiene)- 30 minutes daily with repeat everyday- covered programs on importance of clean drinking water, use of Bio Sand filters, hand washing, importance of Toilets etc • Community events with school children on sanitation practices Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 41. Making the difference Reduced women drudgery Improved availability & quality of water More Lower rain choice of dependence crops Improved social indicators Increased farm productivity Efficient irrigation system Benefits reached to: >3,00,000 people over 70 villages Better quality of life Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)
  • 42. Encouraging Recognitions Recipient of Best Water NGO by UNESCO & Water Digest…….. three Best Water NGO award 2007-08 Water Harvesting years in a row Best Water NGO award 2008-09 for Revival of Rural Water Resources Distinguished Water NGO 2009-10 for Revival of Rural Water Resources “Ground Water Augmentation Award-2009”: Best NGO Northern Zone- by Ministry of Water Resources Shri Salman Khurshid, Union Minister, Water Resources presenting the award to Jay Sehgal Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD) Jal Star Award (by Bhaskar Foundation)
  • 43. Contact Details For more information: Institute of Rural Research & Development (An Initiative of S M Sehgal Foundation) Plot # 34, Sector-44, Gurgaon, Haryana Phone- 0124-4744118, Fax- 4744123 Mob:9871189564 E mail: s.saiphy@irrad.org Website: www.irrad.org Institute of Rural Research and Development (IRRAD)