Chapter 2  Europeans andAfricans Reach the     Americas
I. Breaching the Atlantic
The Columbian Voyages► Intending  to discover an oceanic passage to Asia, in 1492 Christopher Columbus instead mistakenly ...
II. The Spanish Conquest of          America
Caribbean Experiments► Columbus’s  second voyage to the New  World established the first Spanish colony  in the Americas (...
The Conquistadors’ Onslaught      at Tenochtitlan► Withina single generation after the death of Columbus, Spain had conque...
The Great Dying► Spanish contacts with the natives of the Caribbean, central Mexico, and Peru in the early sixteenth centu...
The Columbian Exchange► Imported animals from Europe (cattle, goats, pigs, etc.) devastated the fragile environment of the...
Silver, Sugar, and      Their Consequences► Silver was found abundantly in the New World,  especially in South America.► N...
Spain’s Northern Frontier► Composed    of the present-day Sun  Belt of the United States: Texas Florida New Mexico Ari...
III. England Looks West
England Challenges Spain► England   was the slowest European power to  begin expansion in the New World.► They were initia...
The Westward Fever► The opportunities of the New World began  to permeate all levels of English society in  the 1580s.► En...
Anticipating          North America► Early English settlers had vague ideas  about the nature of the American  natives, so...
IV. African Bondage
The Slave Trade► TheAfrican slave trade began as an attempt to fill a labor shortage in the Mediterranean region as early ...
The Middle Passage► Alsoknown as the Atlantic Passage, transferred slaves to the New World in four to eight weeks on board...
Slavery in Early Spanish            Colonies► Many   thousands of African slaves were brought  along by the great Spanish ...
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery
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Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery

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Chp02 Colonialism and Slavery

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Europeans andAfricans Reach the Americas
  2. 2. I. Breaching the Atlantic
  3. 3. The Columbian Voyages► Intending to discover an oceanic passage to Asia, in 1492 Christopher Columbus instead mistakenly discovered the Americas.
  4. 4. II. The Spanish Conquest of America
  5. 5. Caribbean Experiments► Columbus’s second voyage to the New World established the first Spanish colony in the Americas (in present-day Santo Domingo).► Tainos were the first indigenous people to meet the Spaniards.
  6. 6. The Conquistadors’ Onslaught at Tenochtitlan► Withina single generation after the death of Columbus, Spain had conquered most of the New World.► Spainwas motivated by religion, nationalist pride, and dreams of personal enrichment.
  7. 7. The Great Dying► Spanish contacts with the natives of the Caribbean, central Mexico, and Peru in the early sixteenth century triggered a biological epidemic of smallpox in which some 6 million people perished in 15 years.
  8. 8. The Columbian Exchange► Imported animals from Europe (cattle, goats, pigs, etc.) devastated the fragile environment of the New World.► Various plants (especially weeds) imported accidentally from Europe caused significant damage to the ecosystem
  9. 9. Silver, Sugar, and Their Consequences► Silver was found abundantly in the New World, especially in South America.► Native labor was coerced into mining the metal for the Spanish.► Wild influx of silver nearly destroyed the financial markets of Europe.► Sugar production grew at an alarming rate, due to the changing tastes of Europeans.► African slaves were deemed the best labor to produce the sugar.
  10. 10. Spain’s Northern Frontier► Composed of the present-day Sun Belt of the United States: Texas Florida New Mexico Arizona California
  11. 11. III. England Looks West
  12. 12. England Challenges Spain► England was the slowest European power to begin expansion in the New World.► They were initially motivated by the need to expand fishing areas and find new sources of wood.► The rift between England and Spain centered on religion (Catholic v. Protestant).► England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588; a gigantic upset.
  13. 13. The Westward Fever► The opportunities of the New World began to permeate all levels of English society in the 1580s.► England’s first effort at colonization occurred in Ireland.► England’s first attempts at American colonization were weak and unprofitable.
  14. 14. Anticipating North America► Early English settlers had vague ideas about the nature of the American natives, some true some false.► Some saw Indians as savage predators to be conquered quickly.► Others saw them as docile and child-like
  15. 15. IV. African Bondage
  16. 16. The Slave Trade► TheAfrican slave trade began as an attempt to fill a labor shortage in the Mediterranean region as early as the eighth century.► Portuguese merchants were the first European slave traders following decades of trade by the Arabs and Moors.
  17. 17. The Middle Passage► Alsoknown as the Atlantic Passage, transferred slaves to the New World in four to eight weeks on board sailing vessels.► Conditionswere incredibly bad and many Africans died during the forced journey.
  18. 18. Slavery in Early Spanish Colonies► Many thousands of African slaves were brought along by the great Spanish explorers of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries:► Ponce de Leon► Vasquez► De Soto► Coronado

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