Caribbean Experiments► Columbus’s second voyage to the New World established the first Spanish colony in the Americas (in present-day Santo Domingo).► Tainos were the first indigenous people to meet the Spaniards.
The Conquistadors’ Onslaught at Tenochtitlan► Withina single generation after the death of Columbus, Spain had conquered most of the New World.► Spainwas motivated by religion, nationalist pride, and dreams of personal enrichment.
The Great Dying► Spanish contacts with the natives of the Caribbean, central Mexico, and Peru in the early sixteenth century triggered a biological epidemic of smallpox in which some 6 million people perished in 15 years.
The Columbian Exchange► Imported animals from Europe (cattle, goats, pigs, etc.) devastated the fragile environment of the New World.► Various plants (especially weeds) imported accidentally from Europe caused significant damage to the ecosystem
Silver, Sugar, and Their Consequences► Silver was found abundantly in the New World, especially in South America.► Native labor was coerced into mining the metal for the Spanish.► Wild influx of silver nearly destroyed the financial markets of Europe.► Sugar production grew at an alarming rate, due to the changing tastes of Europeans.► African slaves were deemed the best labor to produce the sugar.
Spain’s Northern Frontier► Composed of the present-day Sun Belt of the United States: Texas Florida New Mexico Arizona California
England Challenges Spain► England was the slowest European power to begin expansion in the New World.► They were initially motivated by the need to expand fishing areas and find new sources of wood.► The rift between England and Spain centered on religion (Catholic v. Protestant).► England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588; a gigantic upset.
The Westward Fever► The opportunities of the New World began to permeate all levels of English society in the 1580s.► England’s first effort at colonization occurred in Ireland.► England’s first attempts at American colonization were weak and unprofitable.
Anticipating North America► Early English settlers had vague ideas about the nature of the American natives, some true some false.► Some saw Indians as savage predators to be conquered quickly.► Others saw them as docile and child-like
The Slave Trade► TheAfrican slave trade began as an attempt to fill a labor shortage in the Mediterranean region as early as the eighth century.► Portuguese merchants were the first European slave traders following decades of trade by the Arabs and Moors.
The Middle Passage► Alsoknown as the Atlantic Passage, transferred slaves to the New World in four to eight weeks on board sailing vessels.► Conditionswere incredibly bad and many Africans died during the forced journey.
Slavery in Early Spanish Colonies► Many thousands of African slaves were brought along by the great Spanish explorers of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries:► Ponce de Leon► Vasquez► De Soto► Coronado