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Wind Energy in the southern Mediterranean, the case of Egypt


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Report by Eng Bothaina Rached, General Manager of NREA, New and renewable energy authority, Cairo, …

Report by Eng Bothaina Rached, General Manager of NREA, New and renewable energy authority, Cairo,
Presented at the workshop of the Mediterranean Solar Plan in Berlin, 28&29 Oct 2008.

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • 1. Arab Republic of Egypt Workshop of Ministry of Electricity & Energy Mediterranean Solar Plan, 28 & 29 Oct. 2008 - Berlin Wind Energy in the Southern Mediterranean, The Case of Egypt Eng. Bothayna Rashed General Manager, New & Renewable Energy Authority (NREA), Cairo E-mail:, Tel. & Fax:+202 22713176 & 22717173
  • 2. Contents Part I. Southern Mediterranean Profile Energy Challenges. • Potentials of Wind Energy. • Wind energy deployment. • Part II. The Case of Egypt Wind Energy Development. • Wind Energy National Strategy up to 2020. • Part III. An Egyptian Point of View Towards MSP Facts • Prerequisites • Issues for discussed •
  • 3. Southern Mediterranean Profile • Countries: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Palestine Territories, Syria, & Tunisia. • Total Area: about 7.8 Mio. km2 • Population: about 197 Mio. • Ave. Pop. Growth rate: 1.7% • Energy Resources: Oil, Natural Gas, Hydro, Wind & Solar & biomass, Source: CIA Fact book website
  • 4. Key Indicators of SMCs Country* Algeria Egypt Israel Jordan Leban. Libya Moro. Syria Tunis. Total OECD Population (Mio) 32 72 6.8 5.9 3.54 5.74 32 18 10 185.98 1164 Pop Growth rate% 1.31 1.87 1.18 2.49 1.23 2.41 1.64 2.3 1.03 1.7 TPES (Mtoe) 32.9 56.9 20.7 6.52 5.4 18.2 11.5 18.4 8.7 179.22 5508 TPES/pop (toe/capita) 1.02 0.78 3.05 1.2 1.52 3.17 0.38 0.99 0.88 0.96 4.37 Energy production 165.7 64.7 1.71 0.29 0.23 85.38 0.66 29.5 6.8 354.97 3860 (Mtoe) Elec. Consumption 26.3 88.3 46.28 8.57 8.85 14.46 17.73 24.48 11.5 246.47 9548 (TWh) Elec. Cons/Pop 812 1215 6808 1575 2499 2520 595 1317 1157 1325 8204 (kWh/capita) GDP ppp (bil 196.4 281 152 23.44 19 33.7 118.1 61.65 70.91 956.2 29493 2000US$) Net Imports (Mtoe) (132.3) (6.13) 19.05 6.73 5.18 (67.1) 10.6 (11.1) 1.99 (173) 1742 * No available data for Palestine and Mauritania Source: Key World Energy Statistics, IEA, 2006 International Energy Annual, 2004, DOE CIA Factbook website.
  • 5. Energy Challenges Facing Southern Mediterranean (SMCs SMCs) Countries (SMCs) Uneven distribution of fossil fuel energy resources over the region. • Dramatic fluctuations in the international energy prices and markets, particularly • for oil. Lack of technology transfer and capacity building. • Modest investments in R&D related to energy aspects. • Limited FDIs and marginal role for national private sector. • National energy market distortion at different scales in some countries due to • energy subsidies. Increasing electric energy demand due to socio-economic development. • Securing electricity supply on sustainable basis represents a burden on macro and • micro levels. • RE can play a remarkable role in this respect, whereas Hydropower, Solar, Wind and Biomass are the most available RE resources.
  • 6. Potentials of Wind Energy in the Southern Mediterranean side The potentials of large scale wind power are concentrated in some of the coastal areas and other internal parts of the Southern side. source: AfriWEA • Annual Average Wind Speed at 80 m above ground level in m/s Source: ECMWF, ISET DLR- MED CSP study
  • 7. Wind Energy Potentials (cont.) Examples of some High potential sites Source: DOE, USA
  • 8. Wind Energy in the Southern Mediterranean side Currently, 548 MW of wind farms are installed in the Region, Compared with about 100 GW world wide. Egypt; 340 Plans of wind energy in the SMCs: - Morocco: 1000MW by 2012 Morocco; 174 - Algeria: Interested, NA - Tunisia: 120MW by 2009 s - Libya: 120 MW 2010 - Jordan: 30-40 MW by 2009, 180-380 MW Israel; 11 Tunisia; 20 are planned Jordan; 3 - Syria: 120MW by 2010 - Lebanon: NA - Palestine: NA Egypt Morocco Tunisia Jordan Israel - Israel: NA Source: Global Wind Energy Council “GWEC” Feb. 2008 Source: RCREEE, MED-EMIP, NERC
  • 9. Wind Energy Deployment Wind energy utilization has not yet been boomed in the Southern Mediterranean side, due to: Dependence on imported equipment. • Lack of national plans for technology transfer. • Absence of the strategic planning towards the relevant R&D. • Inadequate interest towards the technical education. • The role of the private sector in such business is marginal. • Ineffective sub-regional and regional cooperation in terms of • manufacturing/assembling the components of RE equipment and facilitating the movement of the capitals and profits, hence the wind market is still weak.
  • 10. The Case of Egypt 340 MW wind farms Electricitysolar thermal power plant 140 MW Accessibility: 98% of Egyptian Population 2783 MW Hydro power plants
  • 11. Wind Energy Development in Egypt Developing wind energy program is based on : • Setting up the concerned national institutional frame work. • Bilateral and international cooperation. • Securing funds for the projects (national resources, grants and soft loans). • Building the national capacity in the field. • Conducting extensive wind resource assessment.
  • 12. Resource Assessment Wind Atlas of Wind Atlas of Gulf Egypt, 2005 of Suez, 2003
  • 13. Wind Energy Program The program has passed through 3 phases since 1988. i) Pilot ph.: small scale projects: * 400 KW wind project to serve an Oil Co. at Gulf of Suez). * 400 KW wind farm at Hurghada on the Red Sea coast (some components were locally manufactured). ii) Demo ph.: limited commercial projects: * 5.2 MW wind farm project at Hurghada (some components were locally manufactured). Danish WT Danish WT German WT Stall regulated Stall regulated Pitch regulated Lattice tower Tubular tower Tubular tower 300 KW 100 KW 100 KW
  • 14. Wind Energy Projects iii) Large scale grid connected projects: Presently, 335 MW wind farm at Zafarana site (451 turbines) • on the Gulf of Suez is operative into stages starting from 2001. The farm is generating about 1100 GWh/a, saving about • 260,000 T.O.E., and avoiding about 650,000 T.CO2. 2x120 MW wind farms at Zafarana are in different phases of • implementation to be operative by mid of 2009 and 2010 respectively. • 420 MW projects at Al Zayt Gulf area on Gulf of Suez, are in the phase of studies. 300 MW projects at Al Zayt Gulf are in the pipeline. • 120 MW private investments project at Al Zayt Gulf is in the phase of environmental studies.
  • 15. Evolution of wind energy 340 350 310 300 230 250 200 145 145 MW 150 98 100 68 68 50 5 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Oct. 2008 Year
  • 16. Wind Energy National Strategy up to 2020 Recently, the Supreme Council of Energy in Egypt has approved an ambitious plan to: •Satisfy 20% of the generated electricity by RE by 2020, • Out of which is 12% contribution from wind energy (about 7200 MW) grid-connected wind farms, •Accordingly, about 600 MW will be implemented annually . The plan is open for private investments, through competitive bidding as a 1st ph., to be followed by feed-in-tariff, taking into consideration the prices achieved in ph. 1.
  • 17. Egypt' Case, Lessons Learnt I. On the national level •Resource assessment studies (wind atlas etc.). •Governmental support. •Establishing the institutional framework (NREA). •Setting up national RE strategy over a long term. •Supporting regulatory framework (long PPA, regulations, tax reduction, exemption, etc.). •Well trained staff. • Leveling the ground for private sector participation and attracting FDIs.
  • 18. Egypt' Case, Lessons Learnt II. On the international level A positive role for international institutions (GEF, UNEP, WB…). Strong bilateral cooperation (KfW, Danida,…). Facilitating technology transfer. Strengthening the regional and international cooperation (RCREEE). Technical and financial assistance for the developing countries.
  • 19. An Egyptian Point of View Towards MSP Facts • SMCs enjoy huge potentials of solar energy as well as remarkable potentials of wind energy, • Relevant technologies are matured and well known, • RE power projects are expensive, • The political coverage for MSP is existing, But, the Road Map to go beyond further is ……..? Prerequisites • An implementing structure and mechanism to keep the momentum of MSP (e.g. Secretariat, Executive Committee, Task Forces, Focal Points, …..). • Financing modalities are indispensable. • A continuous dialogue between the EU-SMCs would be an added value in terms of identifying the priorities, needs, roles, means and action plans. • Conditions/criteria for projects selection in terms of technologies, sizes, sites, objectives, beneficiaries, financing schemes, etc.).
  • 20. Specific Issues for Comprehensive Discussions •Export of RE power to EU (EU tariffs for RE generated electricity form SMCs based on “transnational” feed in laws). •The required infrastructure ( Grid connection and TL capacities). •Coordination, interpretation and transparency between parties. •Cooperation with existing bodies (e.g. RCREEE) and coordination between initiatives (GMI-CSP, Empower, MSP/UFM,…). •Facilitating development and technology transfer to SMCs. •Roles of EU, national Governments, project developers, private sector, industry, CDM/Green certificates.
  • 21. Regional Interconnections France Italy Spain ‫ا‬ turkey Greece ‫ل‬ Syria Tunisia Sicily Lebanon Mediterranean Sea Iraq Morocco Jordan Algeria Egypt Libya To KSA To Sudan 500kV Mediterranean Basin Interconnection 400 kV 220 kV