CONTENT INTRODUCTION BOUNDARY CRITERIA CONCEPTUAL FOUR MAJOR FRAMEWORK OF CONCEPTS OPEN SYSTEMS NURSING PROCESS NETWORK SIGNIFICANCE IN• THEORY OF GOAL NURSING ATTAINMENT LIMITATIONS• PREDICTIVE PROPOSITIONS
INTRODUCTION Born on 30 Jan, 1923. Received basic education in 1946. Did BS in 1948, MS in 1957 & Ded in 1961 from Teachers college, Columbia University, New York. Published TOWARD A THEORY OF NURSING: GENERAL CONCEPTS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR in 1971. Proposed A THEORY FOR NURSING:SYSTEMS,CONCEPTS AND PROCESS in 1981.• Died on 24 dec,2007.
KING’S OPEN SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK3 BASIC ASSUMPTIONS:• Nursing focus is the care of human beings.• Nursing’s goal is the health of individuals and health care for groups.• Human beings are open systems in constant interaction with their environment.
PERSONAL SYSTEMS Perception Self Growth & development Body image Space Time
PERSONAL SYSTEMSPerception: Self: Major concept, Dynamic individual, universal & subjective. open system & goal A process in which data orientation. obtained is organized, Includes a system of interpreted and ideas, attitudes, values transformed. and commitments.
Personal systems contd…Growth & development: Body image: Changes, occur in orderly Personal, subjective, manner, predictable, dynamic & part of each function of genetic stage of G & D. endowment & As how one perceives environment. both one’s body & other Processes in people’s life reactions to one’s through which they move appearance. from a potential for achievement to actualization of self.
Personal systems contd…Space: Time: Universal, personal, Universal, relational, situational, unidirectional, dimensional & measurable and transactional. subjective. Is defined by the A duration between physical area called one event and another “territory” & by the as uniquely behaviors of those who experienced by each occupy it. human being.
INTERPERSONAL SYSTEMSFormed by human beings interacting. Concept includes- Interaction Communication Transaction Role Stress
Interpersonal systemsInteraction: characterized by values, mechanisms, universal, mutual, contains communication, irreversible & dynamic. Observable behaviors of 2 or more persons in mutual presence.Communication: Verbal, nonverbal, situational, perceptual, transactional, irreversible, personal & dynamic. A process whereby information is given from one person to another either directly or indirectly .
Interpersonal systems contd….Transaction: Unique, observable. A process of interactions in which human beings communicate with environment to achieve goals that are valued.Role: Reciprocal, learned, complex & situational. A set of expected behaviors of those who occupy a particular position in social system; rules which define the obligations and rights ass. with a position in an organization ; relationship of two or more persons who are interacting for a purpose in a particular environment.
Interpersonal systems contd…. The nurse’s role can be defined as interacting with one or more others in a nursing situation in which the nurse, as a professional, uses those skills, knowledge & values identified as nursing to identify goals & help others to achieve the goal.Stress: Dynamic, intensity varies, subjective. A dynamic state whereby a human being interacts with the environment to maintain balance for G & D; which involves exchange of energy and information between person & environment.
SOCIAL SYSTEMSAn organized system of social roles, behaviors and practices. Concept includes-• Organization• Authority• Power• Status• Decision making
SOCIAL SYSTEMSOrganization: Authority: Structure, functions, Observable, universal, goals & resources. reciprocal, essential, Being made up of associated with power. humans beings who Is an active, reciprocal have prescribed roles & process of transaction positions & who make in which the actor’s use of resources to background meet goals. ,perceptions & values influence the definition & validation.
SOCIAL SYSTEMS contd…Power: Universal, situational, limited by the resources. The ability to use & mobilize resources to achieve goalsStatus: Situational & reversible. The position of an individual in a group or of a group in relation to others in an organization.Decision making: Universal, personal, situational & goal directed. A dynamic & systematic process by which goal directed choice of perceived alternatives is made to attain goal.
KING’S THEORY OF GOAL ATTAINMENTMajor elements are seen“in the interpersonal systems in which two people ,who are usually strangers, come together in a health care organization to help and to be helped to maintain a state of health that permits functioning in roles.”
MAJOR CONCEPTS OF THEORY1. Interaction2. Perception3. Communication4. Transaction5. Role6. Stress7. Growth &Development8. Time9. Space
King’s Eight Predictive propositions: If perceptual accuracy is present in nurse-client interactions, transactions will occur. If nurse and client make transaction, goals will be attained. If goals are attained, satisfactions will occur. If goals are attained, effective nursing care will occur. If transactions are made in nurse-client interactions, growth and development will be enhanced. If role expectations and role performance as perceived by nurse and client are congruent, transactions will occur. If role conflict is experienced by nurse or client or both, stress in nurse-client interactions will occur. If nurse with special knowledge and skills communicate appropriate information to clients, mutual goal setting and goal attainment will occur.
BOUNDARY CRITERIA INTERNAL BOUNDARY EXTERNAL BOUNDARY Nurse & client don’t know Interactions in two each other. group persons. She is licensed to practice Interaction limited to professional nursing. licensed professional Client is in need of nurse & client. services. Natural environment• Reciprocal relationship. Interacting purposefully.
KING’S THEORY & 4 CONCEPTSHUMAN BEINGS-social, sentient, rational, perceiving, controlling, purposeful, action oriented and time oriented. They have 3 needs.i. need for health informationii. need for care to prevent illnessiii. need for care when human beings are unable to help themselves.
HEALTH“dynamic life experiences of a human being, which implies continuous adjustment to stressors in internal and external environment through optimum use of one’s resources to achieve maximum potential for daily living.”
ENVIRONMENTEnvironment and society are indicated as major concepts in king’s framework but are not specifically defined in her work. Society may be viewed as the social systems portion of her open systems framework
NURSING“a process of action, reaction and interaction whereby nurse and client share information about their perceptions in the nursing situation,” and as “a process of human interactions between nurse and client whereby each perceives the other and the situation; and through communication , they set goals, explore means and agree on means to achieve goals.”
NURSING PROCESS Assessment-It will occur during the interaction of the nurse and client, who are likely to meet as strangers. Nursing diagnosis-Occurs as a result of the mutual sharing with the client during assessment. Stress is an important concept . Planning-Setting goals and making decisions about how to achieve these goals. This is a part of transaction . Implementation-The activities that seek to meet the goals. Evaluation -Not only speaks to the attainment of the client’s goals but also to the effectiveness of nursing care.
SIGNIFICANCE IN NURSING Clinical practice-IPR with client, guide for practice. Education-Important document. Research- In collection of data, review of literature. Administration- In management & organization.
LIMITATIONSLack of clear definition of environmentLimited in settings in regard to natural environment.Repeated definitions of concepts.Mutuality is must for goal attainment.Not a perfect theory.
SUMMARYImogene king has presented an open systems framework from which she derived a theory of goal attainment .The framework consists of 3 systems-personal, interpersonal & social.The major concepts of the theory are interaction, perception, communication, transaction, role, stress, growth & development, space & time. This theory is based on a philosophy of human beings &open systems framework.This theory is useful, testable & applicable to nsg. practice, although it is not a perfect theory.