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Testing Grammar
 

Testing Grammar

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  • THANK YOU VERY MUCH! MY REPORT IS HERE NE. THANKS TO JONATHAN MAGDALENA TESTING GRAMMAR SLIDES. MAY I KNOW YOUR REFERENCE SO THAT I CAN FURTHER STUDY IT. THANKS AGAIN. GOD BLESS. LEONOR
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    Testing Grammar Testing Grammar Presentation Transcript

    • Testing Grammar Jonathan Magdalena
    • What are we trying to MEASURE ?
      • “ English grammar is chiefly a system of
      • syntax , that decides
      • the order and
      • patterns in which
      • words are arranged
      • into sentences. ” ( Close, 1982)
    • Why should we test grammar ?
      • Linguistic or communicative competence?
      • Structures or functions?
      • Usage or use?
      • Prescriptive or descriptive?
    • How should we test grammar ?
      • Separated from skills?
      • Discrete point or integrative items?
      • Focus on grammar or meaning?
    • What are the most common test formats for testing grammar?
      • RECOGNITION
      • Multiple choice items (Liu, 121)
      • Error-recognition items (Liu, 129)
      • True/False (Baxter, 35)
      • Pairing and matching items
      • Cloze/Modified Cloze (Hughes, 144)
    • What are the most common test formats for testing grammar?
      • Production
      • Completion items (Hughes, 143)
      • Transformation items (Liu, 131)
      • Paraphrase (Hughes, 143)
      • Rearrangement
      • Editing
      • Combination and addition items
      • Items involving the changing of words
    • When should we go for grammar recognition ?
      • When…
      • More material needs to be covered.
      • You want to test different levels of learning.
      • You have little time for scoring.
      • You are not interested in evaluating how well a test taker can formulate a correct answer.
      • You have a large number of test takers.
    • When should we go for grammar production ?
      • When…
      • You want to evaluate a person’s ability to formulate a correct answer.
      • You have more time to score the items
      • You want to test a persons ability to apply concepts and information to a new situation.
      • You have a clear idea of the aspects and concepts that should be tested.
    • True/False
      • Is this sentences true or false?
      • “ He works from Monday to Friday”
      • Does not demonstrate broader knowledge
      • Difficult to construct in higher levels 
      • Encourages guessing due to 50/50 chance
      • Difficult to test attitudes toward learning
    • Multiple Choice
      • John usually ______from Monday to Friday
      • a. works b. worked c. has worked d. is working
      • They can be tricky or too picky  
      • Difficult to test attitudes towards learning
      • Knowledge is limited to options provided
      • Difficult to construct at higher levels
      • Encourages guessing (25% chance)
      • More than one option may be possible
      • All options must be grammatically possible
    • Gap-Filling
      • John usually ______(work) from Monday to Friday
      • They must be part of a broader context  
      • More than one option may be possible
      • First gap may be offered as a sample
      • Difficult to test attitudes towards learning
      • Knowledge is limited to options provided
      • Limitations result in negative backwash
      • Focus should be on the aspect assessed.
    • Cloze/C-test
      • John ______ works ______Monday ______Friday
      • Tests student’s understanding of the whole language  
      • More than one option may be possible
      • First letter may be offered as a sample
      • Difficult to test attitudes towards learning
      • Some words may be impossible to guess
      • Can test student’s IQ rather than language proficiency
      • Difficult for some students (bias)
    • Sentence Building
      • Friday/usually/to/John/Monday/work
      • Tests recognition and/or production 
      • More than one option may be possible
      • Capital letters and punctuation may interfere in the production of the answer
      • Difficult to test attitudes towards learning
      • Some context may be added
      • Can test student’s IQ rather than language proficiency
      • Difficult for some students (bias)
    • Sentence Transformation
      • John is a doctor. He ______________ (work)
      • More than one option may be possible
      • Clues will limit the answers
      • Difficult to test attitudes towards learning
      • Some context may be added
      • Instructions are essential
      • Few aspects might be assessed (passive, reported, comparatives, conditionals…)
    • Correction/Editing
      • John usually working from Monday to Friday
      • Tests recognition of mistakes
      • Can also test production through corrections
      • More than one correction may be possible
      • Mistakes must be grammatically possible
      • Good backwash
      • Context is essential
    • Five characteristics to measure communicative grammar
      • The test must provide more context than only a single sentence.
      • The test taker should understand what the communicative purpose of the task is.
      • He or she should also know who the intended audience is.
      • He or she must have to focus on meaning and not form to answer correctly.
      • Recognize is not sufficient. The test taker must be able “ to produce grammatical responses. ”
      (R. Dickins)
    • Therefore…
      • Have the test taker say or write something of discourse length in order to perform some communicative task for a known audience.
      • What is said or written must make sense.
    • Split Sentences
      • Write out some sentences, and then cut each sentence in half. Place the two halves in two separate columns and ask students to find the matching half.
      • Students ’ abilities in combing sentences
      • Grammar knowledge to all forms of the sentences
    • Examples
      • If you eat that
      • If you touch the dog
      • If you steal my boyfriend
      • If you go out now
      • If you don ’ t leave
      • If you don ’ t book a ticket
      • you ’ ll be sick
      • it ’ ll bite you
      • I ’ ll never speak to you again
      • you ’ ll get soaked
      • I ’ ll call the police
      • you ’ ll be lucky to get a seat
    • Sentences from pictures
      • Hand out a sheet of pictures. Ask students to come out sentences from the pictures or ask them to tell a story.
      • Enough grammar knowledge to make sentences by students.
      • Accuracy
    •  
    • Memory Test
      • Give limited time for students to see the picture. Ask them to describe the picture without seeing it.
      • Testing students ’ ability of making sentences.(enough grammar knowledge)
      • Accuracy
      • The transformation of students ’ sentences
    •  
    • Picture Dictation
      • A student try to describe the picture to other students who haven ’ t seen it.
      • Testing if a student can make sentences which can help him/her communicate well.
      • Accuracy
    •  
    • Strip Story
      • Give students a text from a strip story. Ask them to find the order and resolve the problem from the story.
      • See if students can find the time order from the tenses of the sentences.
      • Accuracy
    •  
    • Miming an action
      • Ask students to role play in a limited situation.
      • Through acting, it can test students ’ ability of thinking of lines. (which may contains different tenses.)
      • Accuracy
    • Growing Stories
      • Story-building activities
      • Students ’ ability of making sentences with different tenses
    •  
    • Questionnaires
      • Turn what have taught in class into a questionnaire. Get students to survey each other. (does not contain fully-written-out questions.)
      • It can see if students ’ totally understand what have learned in class. Also it can see if students ’ can use it well.
    •