EVALUACIÓN EN EL
PROCESO DE ENSEÑANZA
DEL INGLÉS COMO
Prof. Rosynella Cardozo R.
Prof. Jonathan Magdalena
Instituto Pedagógico de Caracas
Departamento de Idiomas Modernos
Cátedra de Lingüística
- Código IIU115 -
1.- Review of main concepts
a.- Generations in evaluation
b.- Evaluation and assessment
2.- Test Characteristics
3.- Principles of test design – test formats
4.- Communicative testing
5.- Test analysis and design
6.- Informal assessment
7.- Self assessment
1- A.- GENERATIONS IN EVALUATION
1st Generation: evaluators measure participants
2nd Generation: evaluators describe participants
3rd Generation: evaluators judge participants
4th Generation: evaluators negotiate with participants
Guba, E. and Lincoln, Y. (1989). Fourth Generation Evaluation.
Newbury Park: Sage Publications Inc.
EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT
Analysis of documents
Evaluation is a natural activity which consists of making value
judgments constantly. However, evaluation itself is not usually carried
out in a principled and systematic way.
The implications of evaluating in an educational context are more
powerful than those related to the social setting. As a result, it
becomes crucial that careful thought is given to make explicit what is
being evaluated and the criteria by which it is being judged.
Therefore, Evaluation (in the pedagogical context) refers to the act of
making value judgments in a systematic way, using a principled,
well-defined criteria to determine the product of education.
TYPES OF EVALUATION
Congruent Formative Summative
or improve it.
•At the end of
(a stage of) the
•To quantify it
through the use
IMPORTANCE OF EVALUATION
To diagnose the needs of participants.
To determine how effective a process is (so as to improve it).
To orient or reorient a process.
To obtain feedback about classroom practiced and progress.
To confirm the validity of all features in the education context.
To determine and monitor students’ weaknesses or strengths.
To determine the program’s appropriateness.
To check on the strategies and the students’ response to them.
To take decisions.
PURPOSES OF EVALUATION
Accountability: Summative. Determines whether there has been value for money;
whether something has been effective or not. It informs to decide is to continue or to
be drastically removed. How? Analysis of statistical data. Who? Policy makers and
Curriculum Development: Formative. Involves information to be used as the basis of
future planning and action. Improvement and renewal of curriculum. How? Responses
to questionnaires, interviews, diaries. Who? Teachers and curriculum developers.
Teacher self-development: Formative. To raise consciousness on teachers and other
practitioners about what actually happens in the classroom. How? Self-assessment,
awareness-raising activities. Who? Teachers.
Student’s outcome: Formative. To check on students’ behavior (non-linguistic factors)
and performance (linguistic factors). How? Self and peer-assessment and informal
assessment. Who? Students.
Assessment refers to the collection of data to describe or
better understand an issue. In general, it appears the term
assessment if more often used when in relation to
educational programs. For example, assessment is the
"systematic collection, review and use of information about
education programs undertaken for the purpose of improving
learning and development" (Student Outcome Learning
Assessment, 2004). In conclusion, assessment refers to
the measurement of performance to determine if the
ends of teaching have been achieved, whereas evaluation
refers to the judgments based on that information.
WHO SHOULD USE ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION?
Examples of why they need Assessment,
Research and Evaluation
Policy Makers set standards, focus on goals, monitor the quality
of education, formulate policies, direct resources
including personnel and money, and determine
effects of tests
Administration are school/departments meeting the goals of the
University, appropriateness of curriculums and
course, identify program strengths and
weaknesses, designate program priorities,
assess alternatives, plan and improve programs
Teachers refine curriculum, perform individual diagnosis
and prescription, monitor student progress, how
much knowledge students are retaining from
current teaching methods, provide feedback to
Researchers is research meeting the goal of the proposal
(especially if funding is reliant on grant money
that requires progress reports), how to improve
the program, find unexpected outcomes
2.- TEST CHARACTERISTICS
A test is valid “if it measures accurately what it is
intended to measure” (Hughes, A., 1989).
A test is reliable if it measures consistently.
Results must be stable.
Aspects affecting time, money, effort, resources
Influence of tests on teaching and learning
3.- PRINCIPLES OF TEST DESIGN – TESTS
- Guidelines for item design
- Sample items