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This is a team project from my Bachelor of Science in Psychology program 7/2011-

This is a team project from my Bachelor of Science in Psychology program 7/2011-

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  • In the following presentation on Autism, we will be looking at a description of just what Autism is and if there is any neurological damage or changes to the brain as a result of autism. We will also explain any behavioral or functional changes that can occur as a result of being diagnosed with autism, and the national and international incidence of this illness. We will also look into any suspected or known causes of the autism and discuss any current treatments or therapies and future research for the prevention or cure of autism. As a last part of this presentation we will look at and analyze the role of genetics on the onset of the illness.
  • Autism is a complex disability that is the result of a neurological disorder. It effects one’s normal brain functioning, ,most prominently thedevelopment of communication and social interaction skills. Autism usually surfaces within the first three years of a individuals life. Individuals with autism experience on-going problems with non-verbal communication, a wide range of social interactions, and activities that include an element of play andor banter("What Is Autism? What Causes Autism?", 2004-2011).
  • Researchers are unsure of the neurological damage or changes that can occur in the brain due to Autism. There are many theories but so far none have been proven. Currently the brains of patients with Autism are being compared to the brains of individuals without the disorder. Research has been made more difficult due to the “tools we have available to analyze but are relatively crude compared to the immense complexity of the brain (Aware library, n.d.).” Differences between a “normal” brain and one of a patient suffering from Autism are as follow; 1. Abnormalities in the frontal lobes the areas in the brain responsible for planning and control. (Aware library, n.d.).2. Abnormalities in the limbic systemthe part of the brain responsible for emotional regulation. (Aware library, n.d.).3. Abnormalities in the brain stem and fourth ventricle or in the cerebellum which governs motor coordination. (Aware library, n.d.).Research hasalso shown that children with autism have “abnormally high levels of serotonin in the blood, a chemical responsible for transmitting signals in nerve cells (Aware library, n.d.).”
  • The American Psychiatric Association, (APA),refers to Autism Spectrum Disorders as being Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This spectrum disorder has 5 types of Autism that vary in severity from mild to severe cases depending behavioral changes. Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder that includes impairments in social interaction, developmental language and communication deficits, and repetitive rigid behaviors. It ranges in severity from a handicap that limits an otherwise normal life to a devastating disability that may require institutional care. An autistic child may be extremely intelligent in a particular subject in school but lack common social skills learned and maintained through normal childhood interaction. Functional changes tend to occur in more severe cases. They are easily detected at an earlier age. Functional changes may include; repetitive body movement, slow or no age appropriate development, and digression in already learned skills such as talking.
  • Autism has become known as one of the fastest growing mental diseases in America with 1 in 110 being born with Autism. As of 2009 research showed a growth rate of well over 1,000% making it 1% of the American population. The United Kingdom is almost identical in statistical data. According to Smith of The Telegraph (2009) a recent study performed at Cambridge University, 1 in 64 births will produce a child having autism. This equals the numbers from similar American and leaves the British Isles at a 1% population with Autism. The numbers are daunting and the world should start looking hard at the seriousness of the mental disease.
  • Autism has no single known cause. There is a large range of autistic disorders and children with Autism can be very different. This makes it very difficult to determine the cause. Researchers have divided the causes into two groups; genetic and environmental. Boys are three times more likely to develop autism than girls. A family with one Autistic child is more likely to find the disorder develop in their other children. Research has shown that having a father over the age of 40 can also contribute to the development of Autism. Children that also suffer from Tourette syndrome and epilepsy also show a higher risk of developing Autism. Researchers are studying whether viral infections can trigger Autism in children. They are also studying whether increases in air pollutants are playing a role in the increase of Autism cases. The symptoms of mercury poisoning mimic many of the symptoms of Autism. Researchers are considering the idea that increased contact to mercury, in the air or through foods like tuna, is triggering Autism. One cause that has been researched thoroughly and discarded is the idea that vaccines are increasing the risk of developing Autism. (Mayo Clinic, 2011)
  • The most commonly used treatments for Autism include; speech therapy, occupational therapy, and social skills therapy. These therapies are all considered behavioral intervention and are designed to teach a child diagnosed with Autism to better interact with other people. In speech therapy an autistic child is taught ways to recognize nonverbal communication clues. They also works on conversation skills such as when to say “good morning” and “thank you.” An occupational therapist will observe a child’s behavior and evaluate how best to schedule their day. This schedule will allow the child to better respond to their environment. Social skills therapy groups autistic children together to give them an opportunity to interact and develop social skills. Brain balance treatment is a 12 week course of one-hour sessions that focus on balancing the weak side of the brain. This will essentially repair the weak side and bring it up to par with their age group. Another treatment possibility is the early detection of autism and the aggressive intervention of treatment. The intervention is intense, 25 hours a day for 12 months. It demands a low student to teacher ratio and is focused on instilling a structure in the child that will lead to a predictable routine. There is no known cure for Autism. The best treatment is support from their family. Creating a positive environment and introducing them to different social groups is also a powerful treatment tool.
  • Although there has not yet been one specific gene or segment of genes isolated that cause autism, there is strong evidence that shows a link between genetics and autism. The strongest evidence to date is through the use of twin studies. A study conducted at the MRC Child Psychiatric Institute of Psychiatry in London found that in identical twins if one child had autism then the likelihood of the other twin developing this condition was 60%. This study was in comparison to fraternal twins, whom did not express an increase in the onset of autism when one did develop the condition.There are several chromosomes that have been found in relation to autism, however there is not one found in common amongst all cases of individuals with autism. Chromosome 2 and 7 have been identified to play a critical role in many ASD. Chromosome 7 is routed in the development of language and speech and chromosome 2 function strongly in early brain development. While 2 and 7 are seen as critically influencing the onset of autism, several other chromosomes and there bias play a role. It seems as though the chromosome which cause the onset vary in gender as well as age. There is a notable difference in early vs. late onset in autism. It is believed that chromosome 3 effects the development of early onset; whereas chromosome 10 causes the adverse effects of late onset of autism, also known as regression autism. Equally important, there are two chromosomes that have been identified based on gender which relate to the onset of autism. In a sample, families with only male individuals having or developing autism has been linked to chromosome 11, whereas families with only females developing autism was linked to chromosome 4.
  • Autism is a complex disability that is the result of a neurological disorder. It effects one’s normal brain functioning, ,most prominently thedevelopment of communication and social interaction skills. The American Psychiatric Association, (APA),refers to Autism Spectrum Disorders as being Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This spectrum disorder has 5 types of Autism that vary in severity from mild to severe cases depending upon behavioral changes. Autism is a neurobehavioral disorder that includes impairments in social interaction, developmental language and communication deficits, and repetitive rigid behaviors. Autism has no single known cause. There is a large range of autistic disorders and children with Autism can be very different. This makes it very difficult to determine the cause. Researchers have divided the causes into two groups; genetic and environmental. The most commonly used treatments for Autism include; speech therapy, occupational therapy, and social skills therapy. These therapies are all considered behavioral intervention and are designed to teach a child diagnosed with Autism to better interact with other people. Although there has not yet been one specific gene or segment of genes isolated that cause autism, there is strong evidence that shows a link between genetics and autism. The strongest evidence to date is through the use of twin studies. A study conducted at the MRC Child Psychiatric Institute of Psychiatry in London found that in identical twins if one child had autism then the likelihood of the other twin developing this condition was 60%. Autistic children that receive early treatment and strong family support have the greatest likelihood of success.

Transcript

  • 1. Autism
    By Learning Tean “A”
    Psy/340
    Amanda Trivett
    Sandra Cruz
    Danielle Delaunay
    Ebony Henson
    James Clements
    Jocelyn Copko
    Nina Gay
    date
  • 2. Introduction
    What is Autism
    Neurological damage or changes to the brain as a result of Autism
    Behavioral or functional changes
    The suspected or known causes of Autism
    The role of genetics
  • 3. What is Autism?
    Developmental brain disorders
    Wide-spectrum disorder
    Difficulty with communication & social skills
    Result of a neurological disorder
  • 4. Neurological Damage or Changes to the Brain as a Result of Autism
    Neurological damage or changes
    Abnormalities in the Limbic System
    Abnormalities in the Frontal Lobes
    Abnormalities in the Brain Stem
    Fourth Ventricle or in the Cerebellum
  • 5. Behavioral or Functional Changes that can Occur as a Result of Autism
    Autism is comprised of a wide spectrum of disorders
    Behavioral changes vary from mild to severe
    Symptoms vary and can be detected at an early age.
  • 6. National and International Incidences of Autism
    Statistics in the U. S.
    (As of 2009)
    1 in 110 births
    Growth Rate over 1,100%
    1% of child population
    Statistics in the U.K.
    ( As of 2009)
    1 in 64 births
    Growth rate over 1,000%
    1% of child population
  • 7. The Suspected or Known Causes of Autism
    Genetic
    Child’s sex
    Family History
    Father’s Age
    Other Medical Disorders
    Environmental
    Viral Infections
    Air Pollutants
    Mercury Poisoning
  • 8. Current Treatments or Therapies
    Therapies
    Speech Therapy
    Occupational Therapy
    Social Skills Therapy
    Treatments
    Brain Balance
    Intervention
  • 9. The Role of Genetics on the Onset of Autism
    Chromosomal Indicators
    2 and 7 play a critical role
    3 and 10 distinguish onset
    4 and 11 markers for gender differences
  • 10. Conclusion
    Autism consists of a wide spectrum of different disorders ranging from mild to severe
    Characterized by difficulty in social interaction
    No known cause or cure
    Several treatments exist
    Research indicates genetic link
    Family support is key
  • 11. Reference
    Awares library . (n.d.). About autism. Retrieved from http://www.awares.org/static_docs/about_autism.asp?docSection=4
    Autism Society. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.autism-society.org/about-autism/facts-and-statistics.html
    Mayo Clinic. (2011). Retrieved August 30, 2011, from Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/autism
    Nature-nurture gene link sheds new Light on autism. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080717211651.htm
    Increases in autism and “diagnosticsubstitutionâ€� II. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.namingandtreating.com/?s=autism+vaccine
    Smith, R. (2009). The Telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/5400079/One-in-every-64-children-could-have-autism-Cambridge-researchers-find.html
    What is Autism? What Causes Autism?. (2004-2011). Retrieved from http://MediLexicon International Ltd