Why Does GIS Matter

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What is GIS?
GIS Applications
How has it been used in science
Trends

Published in: Technology, Education

Why Does GIS Matter

  1. 1. Geography Awareness Week 2013 Why Does GIS Matter? Song Gao UCSB Geography Email: sgao@geog.ucsb.edu http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~sgao/ Nov 19, 2013
  2. 2. GIS in Daily Life Wayfinding, Navigation, Location-based Search and Decision Making
  3. 3. Content • • • • What is GIS? GIS Applications How has it been used in science Trends Nov 19, 2013, Song Gao
  4. 4. What is GIS? A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. GIS allows us to view, understand, question, interpret, and visualize data in many ways that reveal spatial relationships, patterns, and trends in the form of digital maps, globes, reports, and charts. Nov 19, 2013, Song Gao
  5. 5. Three Views of GIS Database GIS Analysis Visualization
  6. 6. (1) GIS as GeoDatabase • Geodatabase: a spatial database containing data that associate with geographic information. Attributes + Geometry http://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/tiger.html
  7. 7. (2) GIS as GeoVisualization • Geovisualization: a set of intelligent maps and other views that shows features and feature relationships on the earth's surface.
  8. 8. Mapping Every McDonald's in the U.S.
  9. 9. Starbucks vs. Dunkin Donuts http://www.boston.com/yourtown/specials/starbucks_vs_dunkin_donuts/
  10. 10. (3) GIS as Spatial Analysis • Geoprocessing: a set of tools take geographic information from existing data, apply spatial analysis functions to identify patterns or discovery knowledge. P.A. Longley, M.F. Goodchild, D.J. Maguire, and D.W. Rhind (2011) Geographical Information Systems and Science. Third Edition. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
  11. 11. Find the “Hot Spot” Regions
  12. 12. Content • • • • What is GIS? GIS Applications How has it been used in science Trends Nov 19, 2013, Song Gao
  13. 13. What things do you think are related to GIS?
  14. 14. The Canada Geographic Information System • Roger Tomlinson – IBM contracts 1964-68 • 7 layers of land characteristics – – – – soil capability for agriculture recreation capability current land use …. • To assess the current use of Canadian land – to measure area, plan new uses
  15. 15. Esri UC 2011
  16. 16. Natural Resources Management Esri UC 2011
  17. 17. Esri UC 2011
  18. 18. Delivery Route Planning
  19. 19. Esri UC 2011
  20. 20. Geospatial data and tools have the potential to contribute to the saving of lives, the limitation of damage, and reduction in the costs to society of dealing with emergencies
  21. 21. Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda GIS
  22. 22. Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda GIS
  23. 23. Hurricane Sandy Tweetbeat http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g3AqdIDYG0c SGI
  24. 24. Google Earth
  25. 25. Discrete global grid based on the Icosahedron (20 triangles, 1:4 recursive subdivision) Ross Heikes and David Randall, Colorado State University Question: How to divide the globe into different levels of details?
  26. 26. Content • • • • What is GIS? GIS Applications How has it been used in science Trends Nov 19, 2013, Song Gao
  27. 27. Source: Gilbert E. W. 1958 ‘Pioneer maps of health and disease in England.’ Geographical Journal, 124: 172–183
  28. 28. Terrain Viewshed Analysis • A viewshed is an environmental area that is visible to the human eye from a fixed point.
  29. 29. Terrain Viewshed Analysis
  30. 30. Noise Assessment http://gis.stackexchange.com/questions/54696/how-to-create-noise-maps-open-source-orscripted-in-arcgis
  31. 31. Human Study Social Science Environment Spatially Integrated Social Science http://www.csiss.org/
  32. 32. History and Archaeology Overlap Layers Digitizing features for excavations
  33. 33. GIS to identify social divide
  34. 34. Information Age • Location Awareness Devices(Mobile Phone、GPS) • Large scale spatio-temporal datasets
  35. 35. Tracking the $ dollar bills http://rocs.northwestern.edu/clips/
  36. 36. Phone call patterns in different places Phone call patterns in different places AM 03-04 AM 06-07 PM 15-16 PM 18-19 http://www.spatial.ucsb.edu/events/local13/posters.php AM 09-10 PM 21-22 By Song Gao
  37. 37. Mobile Landscape: People in MIT SENSEable City Lab have developed a continuously changing realtime maps of cell phone usage in Graz, Austria. http://senseable.mit.edu/grazrealtime/
  38. 38. Content • • • • What is GIS? GIS Applications How it has been used in science Trends Nov 19, 2013, Song Gao
  39. 39. Online GIS Access GIS techniques without installing any software on your computers.
  40. 40. Cloud GIS/ Mobile GIS
  41. 41. 3D-GIS
  42. 42. Space-Time GIS
  43. 43. The GPS tracks of individuals in spatio-temporal space Regular Irregular by Song Gao
  44. 44. Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) • Citizens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography – by Professor Michael F. Goodchild www.wikimapia.org
  45. 45. www.openstreetmap.org
  46. 46. OpenStreetMap Edits in US Created by ITO World
  47. 47. Mapping Social Media by Paul Butler https://www.facebook.com/notes/facebook-engineering/visualizing-friendships/469716398919
  48. 48. Crandall et al. 2009. Mapping the world’s photos. http://www.cs.cornell.edu/~crandall/papers/mapping09www.pdf
  49. 49. Dots Yellow: Photos Blue: Tweets White: Both by Erik Fischer http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/sets/72157627140310742/
  50. 50. Tracks inferred from Flickr postings (http://www.cs.cornell.edu/~crandall/papers/mapping09www.pdf) See also http://www.flickr.com/photos/walkingsf/sets/72157624209158632/
  51. 51. Spatial is special, To know the unknown!
  52. 52. http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~sgao/

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