Flour is the primaryingredient in baking.Wheat flour is best forbaked goods becauseof its high proteincontent which makesavailable larger amountof gluten for breadstructure.
1. Bread flour Contains the largest amount of protein, 12 to 14%.2. All- Purpose Flour contains 10 to 12% protein. This is sometimes referred to as family flour, general flour, or pastry flour.
3. Cake Flour Contains the least percentage of protein. This is sometimes called weak flour or soft flour. It comes from soft wheat and as its name implies, is good for cakes, cookies, and other goods that need little or no gluten at all.
4. Ready Mixes “Premixed” flour. Some ingredients such as salt, baking powder, milk solids and sugar have been added.
Substances that producesgases when mixed with otheringredients causing mixture torise.
1. Biological Leavening Agents Yeast is a single- celled plant that reproduces by budding and is capable of converting sugar to alcohol and carbon dioxide in a process known as FERMENTATION. This process causes flour to rise and gives volume to bread.
2. Chemical Leavening Agent a. Baking Powder- chemical leavener consisting of baking soda and acid.
b. Baking Soda sodium Bicarbonate - a chemical leaveningagent tht releases carbondioxide when acid sources isadded to it such asmilk, molasses, cream of tartarand other dry acid salts
3. Physical Leavening Agents Mechanical manipulation of flour mixtures, such as creaming butter and sugar together, cutting in or folding ingredients and others, leaven the mixtures by incorporating air.
a. Salt- Sodium Chloride- helps regulate fermentation. It gives crusty flavor to baked products.b. Eggs- acts as emulsifying agent for cakes. It also enhance the nutritive value and prolong the storing qualities of the baked good.
c. Shortening- general term used for fats and oils. They contributes improvement of the taste, nutritional, and eating qualities of baked goods.d. Sugar- responsible for the attractive golden brown color of baked goods. Contributes good flavor.
e. Liquid- may be plain water, milk, or fruit juices. It makes possible gluten formation, acts as solvents for sugar and salt, and is a dispersing medium for fats, yeast and other substances, to distribute them uniformly in the mixture.
Provide interestingflavors and gives varietyto the baker’s output.There are also two kindsof Liquid flavorings,EXTRACT andEMULSIONS
Extracts are oils dissolved in alcohol. Familiar examples are vanilla, lemon and almond.Emulsions are oils emulsified with water. Lemon, orange and mint emulsions are those most commonly used.