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  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 122.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 122-123. Theory Y suggests that: 1) Employees inherently dislike work and, whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. 2) Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. 3) Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible. 4) Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition. Theory Y suggests that: 1) Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play. 2) People will exercise self-direction and self-control if they are committed to the objectives. 3) The average person can learn to accept, even seek, responsibility. 4) The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 122-123.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 123. The early needs theories, developed in the 1950s, are heavily attacked and now questionable in terms of validity. However, these are probably the best known explanations for employee motivation, and they do represent the foundation from which contemporary theories have grown. Also, practising managers use these theories in explaining employee motivation
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 123-124. Abraham Maslow's theory is perhaps the best known of all. He hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 123-124.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 123-124.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 124-126. Motivation-Hygiene Theory was proposed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg after investigating the question, "What do people want from their jobs?" Factors affecting job attitudes were tabulated and classified. Herzberg concluded that the replies people gave when they felt good about their jobs were significantly different from the replies given when they felt bad.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 124-126.
  • Material pertinent to this illustration is found on pages 124-126. Herzberg’s data suggest that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, as was traditionally believed. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. Herzberg proposed the existence of a dual continuum: The opposite of "Satisfaction" is "No Satisfaction" and the opposite of Dissatisfaction" is "No Dissatisfaction." Traditional view saw the continuum as Satisfaction to Dissatisfaction. Herzberg saw it otherwise. 1) People could have no dissatisfaction, but still not be satisfied 2) Conditions that eliminate dissatisfaction do not bring about satisfaction 3) Satisfaction is created after all dissatisfaction is eliminated.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 124-126. People were asked what made them feel exceptionally good and bad about their jobs. When things are going well, people tend to take credit themselves. Contrarily, they blame failure on the external environment. Since raters had to make interpretations, it is possible that they contaminated the findings by interpreting one response in one manner while treating another similar response differently. The theory, to the degree that it is valid, provides an explanation of job satisfaction, rather than how to motivate. In other words, individuals may dislike parts of their jobs, yet still think the jobs are acceptable. The motivation-hygiene theory ignores situational variables.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 126-127.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 126-127.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 126-127.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 127-128.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 136.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 144. The typical employee of the 1990s is a highly-trained professional with a college degree, who receives a great deal of satisfaction from his or her work. These employees have a strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise. Their loyalty is more to their profession than to their employer. Job challenge and support motivates these employees not necessarily money.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 144.
  • Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 156-157.

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 4 Motivating Self and OthersChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 2. Motivating Self and Others Questions for Consideration• What do theories tell us about motivating ourselves and others?• How do we motivate for specific organizational circumstances and/or individual differences?• Are rewards always necessary?Chapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 3. What Is Motivation?• Motivation – The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal • Intensity: how hard a person tries • Direction: where effort is channeled • Persistence: how long effort is maintainedChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 4. Theory X and Theory Y• Theory X – Assumes that employees dislike work, will attempt to avoid it, and must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment if they are to perform.• Theory Y – Assumes that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction and self-control.Chapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 5. Motivators• Intrinsic – A person’s internal desire to do something, due to such things as interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction.• Extrinsic – Motivation that comes from outside the person, such as pay, bonuses, and other tangible rewards.Chapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 6. Needs Theories of Motivation• Basic idea: – Individuals have needs that, when unsatisfied, will result in motivation • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Herzberg’s two factor theory (motivation-hygiene theory) • Alderfer’s ERG theory • McClelland’s theory of needsChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 7. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Physiological – Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs• Safety – Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm• Social – Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship Chapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition. Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs• Esteem – Includes internal esteem factors such as self- respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention• Self-actualization – The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillmentChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 9. Exhibit 4-1 Self- actualization Esteem Social Safety PhysiologicalChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 10. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory• Hygiene factors are necessary, but not sufficient, for healthy adjustment – Extrinsic factors; context of work • Company policy and administration • Unhappy relationship with employees supervisor • Poor interpersonal relations with ones peers • Poor working conditionsChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 11. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory• Motivators - the sources of satisfaction – Intrinsic factors; content of work • Achievement • Recognition • Challenging, varied or interesting work • Responsibility • AdvancementChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 12. Exhibit 4-3 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Traditional view Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzbergs view Motivators Satisfaction No satisfaction Hygiene Factors No dissatisfaction DissatisfactionChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 13. Criticisms of Motivation- Hygiene Theory• The reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questioned• No overall measure of satisfaction was used• The theory is inconsistent with previous researchMcClelland’s Theory of NeedsChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 14. Summary: Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow: Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher-order needs. – Herzberg: Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction, however. Motivators lead to satisfaction.Chapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 15. Summary: Impact of Theory – Maslow: Enjoys wide recognition among practising managers. Most managers are familiar with it. – Herzberg: The popularity of giving workers greater responsibility for planning and controlling their work can be attributed to his findings. Shows that more than one need may operate at the same time.Chapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 16. Summary: Support and Criticism of Theory – Maslow: Research does not generally validate the theory. In particular, there is little support for the hierarchical nature of needs. Criticized for how data were collected and interpreted. – Herzberg: Not really a theory of motivation: Assumes a link between satisfaction and productivity that was not measured or demonstrated.Chapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 17. Expectancy Relationships• The theory focuses on three relationships: – Effort-performance relationship • The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. – Performance-reward relationship • The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to a desired outcome. – Rewards-personal goals relationship • The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and and are attractive to the individual.Goal-Setting TheoryManagement by ObjectivesResponses to the Reward System• Equity Theory• Fair ProcessEquity TheoryFair Process and TreatmentFair ProcessChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 18. Role of Money• Money is most commonly used reward in organizations – Money certainly helps some needs get met• But, money is not all employees’ top priority – Many emphasize relationships in the workplaceVariable Pay ProgramsChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 19. Motivating Professionals• How are “professionals” different? – Receive a great deal of “intrinsic” satisfaction from their work. – Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise. – Well paid/Chief reward is work itself. – Value support. – More focused on work as central life interest.Chapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 20. Motivating Professionals• How do we motivate professionals? – Provide challenging projects – Give them autonomy in follow interests and structure work. – Reward with educational opportunities. – Recognize their contributions.Motivating Low-Skilled Service WorkersCross-Cultural Differences in MotivationAre Rewards Overrated? Cognitive Evaluation TheoryAbolishing RewardsSummaryChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.
  • 21. Implications• Recognize Individual Differences – Employees have different needs. – Don’t treat them all alike. – Spend the time necessary to understand what’s important to each employee.• Use Goals and Feedback• Allow Employees to Participate in Decisions That Affect ThemChapter 4, Stephen P. Robbins and Nancy Langton, Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition.Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education Canada Inc.