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SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE
MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY
(Computer Science and Engineer)
Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks
BeeSensor routing protocol for Wsn’s
Bees in nature
Bee agent model
An agent of group communication
Phases of BeeSensor protocol
Comparison of BeeSensor with AODV
Routing protocol is the nervous system of any
Routing refers to select paths in a network along
which to send data.
Protocol is a set of formal rules describing how to
transmit data across a network.
The job of a routing protocol is to discover path
connecting a pair of nodes under a given set of
To engineer an event-driven, simple, scalable,
reliable, decentralized and energy-efficient
multipath routing protocol for WSNs through
nature-inspired simple bee agents.
Everyone knows that individual bees glean nectar from
flowers and transform it into delicious honey, but it is
not so widely known that a colony of bees possesses a
complex, highly ordered social organization for the
gathering of its food.
Bee agents having limited knowledge about the
overall network topology – must cooperate and
share the routing information with their fellow
agents to make more intelligent routing decisions.
BeeSensor works with four types of agents
Bees communicate with each other directly through dances to
exchange the quality and location of potential foraging sites .
waggle dance: A scout bee, after discovering a fresh patch of
flowers and returning home as a forager, communicates the
quality and location of the food source to foragers at hive by
performing a waggle dance.
Intensity of this dance is an indication of the perceived food
Higher the intensity of the waggle dance, better is the
tremble dance : If a returning forager has to wait
longer to get unloaded, it performs the tremble dance.
tremble dance indicates that the current food
collection rate is higher than the processing rate.
Therefore, in response, foragers may abandon their
current activity and join the food-storer bees
The scouting is divided into two steps
1. Forward scouting
2. Backward scouting
When an event1 is detected at a sensor node, it is handed over
to a packer. The packer looks for an appropriate forager that
might carry this event to a sink node. If the packer fails to find
a forager, it launches a forward scout and encapsulates the
event in its payload.
Header: scout ID, source node ID, minimum remaining energy
,number of hops (initialized to zero).
The forward scout is then broadcast to the neighbors of the
source node. A forward scout does not know a priori the
address of the sink node.
A sink node interested in the event, carried in the payload of a
scout, will convert the forward scout to a backward scout.
When a sink node receives a forward scout, it extracts the
event from the payload area and passes it to the application.
Then it creates a new forwarding table entry which contains
three fields: a unique path ID, next hop ID and previous hop ID
Next hop is set to the sink ID, previous hop entry in the
forwarding table is set to the node ID from which the forward
scout is received.
Finally, it changes the agent ID to convert it to a backward
scout. The backward scout is then forwarded to the node from
which the forward scout was received.
The forager is finally forwarded to the next hop using
the path ID of the forager.
A forager follows a predetermined path, therefore,
intermediate nodes do not make routing decisions.
In BeeSensor, the intermediate nodes simply forward
the forager to the next hop based on the path ID.
This reduces the forager processing overhead at
A swarm encapsulates all foragers belonging to its
own group – same path ID foragers –in its payload.
The swarm is then routed towards the source node
using the reverse link entries (previous hop) in the
A swarm does not advertise a path if its minimum
remaining energy level is below certain threshold, say
ℎ, provided that better quality paths are available.
Consequently, the poor quality paths are gradually
removed from the routing tables.
Routing loops :The forwarding table entry at a node
indicates that the backward scout has already visited this
node. Therefore, if a backward scout visits a node for the
second time, it is dropped by the node and the
corresponding entry is flushed.
Path Maintenance: Swarming is simple but an elegant way
of doing path maintenance. A path at a source node remains
valid if it has foragers for it.
if no forager arrives within the wait time, it is a clear
indication that the path is broken.
Packet delivery ratio: It is the ratio of total number of
events received at a sink node to the total number of events
generated by all the source nodes in the network.
Energy efficiency: it is computed by dividing the total
energy consumed in the network by the number of Kbits
delivered successfully at the sink node.
Latency :It is defined as the difference in time when an
event is generated at a source and when it got delivered at the
Algorithmic complexity: It is defined as the total number of
CPU cycles consumed, for processing control packets and
forwarding of data packets
Packet Delivery Ratio and latency of BeeSensor is higher than
AODV and other SI protocols.
Total Energy Consumption is less in BeeSensor than AODV
and other SI protocols ,therefore BeeSensor is energy –efficient
Algorithmic Complexity and Control Overhead are least in
BeeSensor routing protocol.
Lifetime of network is more in BeeSensor than AODV
BeeSensor delivers superior performance in terms
of packet delivery ratio and latency, but with the
least energy consumption compared with AODV
and other SI algorithms.
A.Moussa and N El-Sheimy, localization of wireless sensor
network using bees optimization algorithm,IEEE ,2011
Karima Aksa, Mohammed Benmohammed, A Comparison
Between Geometric and Bio-Inspired Algorithms for Solving
Routing Problem in Wireless Sensor Network, International
Journal of Networks and Communications 2012, 2(3): 27-32
K. Akkaya, M. Younis, A survey on routing protocols for
wireless sensor networks, Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks 3 (3)
Nikolaos A. Pantazis, Stefanos A. Nikolidakis and Dimitrios
D. Vergados, Senior Member, IEEE, Energy-Efficient Routing
Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey ,IEEE
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Muhammad Saleem, Gianni A. Di Caro, Muddassar Farooq
Swarm intelligence based routing protocol for wireless
sensor networks: Survey and future directions ,Elsevier
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