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BeeSensor routing protocol for wireless sensor network
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BeeSensor routing protocol for wireless sensor network



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  • 2. Routing Protocol  Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks  BeeSensor routing protocol for Wsn’s  Bees in nature  Bee agent model  An agent of group communication  Phases of BeeSensor protocol  Evaluation metrics  Comparison of BeeSensor with AODV  Conclusion  Refrences 
  • 3. Routing protocol is the nervous system of any computer network.  Routing refers to select paths in a network along which to send data.  Protocol is a set of formal rules describing how to transmit data across a network.
  • 4. The job of a routing protocol is to discover path connecting a pair of nodes under a given set of constraints
  • 5. To engineer an event-driven, simple, scalable, reliable, decentralized and energy-efficient multipath routing protocol for WSNs through nature-inspired simple bee agents.
  • 6. Characteristics of bee sensor routing protocol  multipath routing  Reactive  next hop routing  Flat routing  address-centric routing  Distributed routing  Best-effort  Event-driven  Fault-tolerance
  • 7. Everyone knows that individual bees glean nectar from flowers and transform it into delicious honey, but it is not so widely known that a colony of bees possesses a complex, highly ordered social organization for the gathering of its food.
  • 8. Bee agents having limited knowledge about the overall network topology – must cooperate and share the routing information with their fellow agents to make more intelligent routing decisions. BeeSensor works with four types of agents Packers  Scouts  Foragers  Swarms 
  • 9. Bees communicate with each other directly through dances to exchange the quality and location of potential foraging sites . waggle dance: A scout bee, after discovering a fresh patch of flowers and returning home as a forager, communicates the quality and location of the food source to foragers at hive by performing a waggle dance.  Intensity of this dance is an indication of the perceived food source quality.  Higher the intensity of the waggle dance, better is the quality.
  • 10. tremble dance : If a returning forager has to wait longer to get unloaded, it performs the tremble dance.  tremble dance indicates that the current food collection rate is higher than the processing rate. Therefore, in response, foragers may abandon their current activity and join the food-storer bees
  • 11. 1. 2. 3. 4. Scouting Foraging Swarming Routing loops and Path maintenance
  • 12. The scouting is divided into two steps 1. Forward scouting 2. Backward scouting
  • 13.  When an event1 is detected at a sensor node, it is handed over to a packer. The packer looks for an appropriate forager that might carry this event to a sink node. If the packer fails to find a forager, it launches a forward scout and encapsulates the event in its payload.  Header: scout ID, source node ID, minimum remaining energy ,number of hops (initialized to zero).  The forward scout is then broadcast to the neighbors of the source node. A forward scout does not know a priori the address of the sink node.  A sink node interested in the event, carried in the payload of a scout, will convert the forward scout to a backward scout.
  • 14.  When a sink node receives a forward scout, it extracts the event from the payload area and passes it to the application. Then it creates a new forwarding table entry which contains three fields: a unique path ID, next hop ID and previous hop ID  Next hop is set to the sink ID, previous hop entry in the forwarding table is set to the node ID from which the forward scout is received.  Finally, it changes the agent ID to convert it to a backward scout. The backward scout is then forwarded to the node from which the forward scout was received.
  • 15.  The forager is finally forwarded to the next hop using the path ID of the forager.  A forager follows a predetermined path, therefore, intermediate nodes do not make routing decisions.  In BeeSensor, the intermediate nodes simply forward the forager to the next hop based on the path ID.  This reduces the forager processing overhead at intermediate nodes.
  • 16.  A swarm encapsulates all foragers belonging to its own group – same path ID foragers –in its payload. The swarm is then routed towards the source node using the reverse link entries (previous hop) in the forwarding tables.  A swarm does not advertise a path if its minimum remaining energy level is below certain threshold, say ℎ, provided that better quality paths are available. Consequently, the poor quality paths are gradually removed from the routing tables.
  • 17. Routing loops :The forwarding table entry at a node indicates that the backward scout has already visited this node. Therefore, if a backward scout visits a node for the second time, it is dropped by the node and the corresponding entry is flushed. Path Maintenance: Swarming is simple but an elegant way of doing path maintenance. A path at a source node remains valid if it has foragers for it. if no forager arrives within the wait time, it is a clear indication that the path is broken.
  • 18.  Packet delivery ratio: It is the ratio of total number of events received at a sink node to the total number of events generated by all the source nodes in the network.  Energy efficiency: it is computed by dividing the total energy consumed in the network by the number of Kbits delivered successfully at the sink node.  Latency :It is defined as the difference in time when an event is generated at a source and when it got delivered at the sink node.  Algorithmic complexity: It is defined as the total number of CPU cycles consumed, for processing control packets and forwarding of data packets
  • 19.  Packet Delivery Ratio and latency of BeeSensor is higher than AODV and other SI protocols.  Total Energy Consumption is less in BeeSensor than AODV and other SI protocols ,therefore BeeSensor is energy –efficient protocol.  Algorithmic Complexity and Control Overhead are least in BeeSensor routing protocol.  Lifetime of network is more in BeeSensor than AODV
  • 20. BeeSensor delivers superior performance in terms of packet delivery ratio and latency, but with the least energy consumption compared with AODV and other SI algorithms. .
  • 21. [1]A.Moussa and N El-Sheimy, localization of wireless sensor network using bees optimization algorithm,IEEE ,2011 [2]Karima Aksa, Mohammed Benmohammed, A Comparison Between Geometric and Bio-Inspired Algorithms for Solving Routing Problem in Wireless Sensor Network, International Journal of Networks and Communications 2012, 2(3): 27-32 [3]K. Akkaya, M. Younis, A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks, Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks 3 (3) (2005) 325–349. [4]Nikolaos A. Pantazis, Stefanos A. Nikolidakis and Dimitrios D. Vergados, Senior Member, IEEE, Energy-Efficient Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey ,IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, VOL. 15, NO. 2, SECOND QUARTER 2013
  • 22. [5]Muhammad Saleem, Gianni A. Di Caro, Muddassar Farooq Swarm intelligence based routing protocol for wireless sensor networks: Survey and future directions ,Elsevier Information Sciences 181 (2011) 4597–4624 [6]Muhammad Saleem, Israr Ullah, Muddassar Farooq BeeSensor: An energy-efficient and scalable routing protocol for wireless sensor networks, Elsevier Information Sciences 200 (2012) 38–56