Mahmud of Ghazni and Mohammad of Ghur Lesson - 2
The name Turk was first appliedto a clan of tribal chieftains whofounded the nomadicGöktürk Empire (“presentTurkey"). These nomads roamedin the Altai Mountains in northernMongolia and on the steppes ofCentral Asia. The Göktürks wereruled by Khans whose influencesextended during the sixth toeighth centuries from theAral Sea to the Hindu Kush
Cities of Ghazni and Ghur• In the 9th century Arab Empire started disintegrating anddeclined.• Two kingdoms emerged prominent, the two cities of Ghazniand Ghur which are in present day Afghanistan.•The rulers of these two kingdoms invaded and plundered theIndian Subcontinent in the 11th and 12th centuries.•By the 10th and 11th century the North India had disintegratedinto many small kingdoms which gave huge advantage to theserulers.•These attacks were done to finance their ambition of expandingtheir empire.
Mahmud of Ghazni ( AD 971-1030)•After the decline of Abbasid dynasty Subuktigin a Turkish nobleacquired the adjoining parts of Ghazni.•His son Mahmud wanted to achieve the glory of the greatestconqueror of the world.•He had heard about the wealth of the Indo- Gangetic plains.•He attacked and plundered North India 17 times from AD 1001to 1025.•He believed in the jihad (holy war which will lead to heaven)and plundering the region.•He looted the rich temples and trade centers e.g Siestan andMultan.•He also fought with the rulers of Ghur to establish is superiority.
LIST OF INVASIONS•In AD 1001 he attacked Punjab, Ujjain, Gwalior,Kalinga, Kanauj and Delhi.•He also attacked and raided rich cities andtowns like Nagarkot, Multan, Alwar, Thaneshwar,Mathura and Somnath.
SOMNATH TEMPLEWhen Mahmud’s army was advancing to plunder the Somnath,the Hindu inhabitants were so sure that the iron lingam wouldsave them that they stood calmly. But killing and plundering tookplace. 50,000 people were killed, 1300 kg of gold and millions ofdinars were looted.
Mahmud was a successful general and a conqueror who never suffered defeat. Apart from war , he was a patron of art , architecture and literature.His capital Ghazni was adorned with manybeautiful buildings, mosques, libraries, amuseum and a university.In his court scholars like Al-Beruni andPersian poet Firdausi received his patronage.Firdausi wrote the great epic – Shahnama. Al-Beruni spent 10 years and wrote a bookdescribing India called Tahqiq-i-Hind.
DEATH OF MAHMUD OF GHAZNI•Before Mahmud died he annexed Punjab.•He died in AD 1030.His death brought an endto his empire and the frequent raids to theIndian sub-continent.•He was truly a warrior more than a man offaith.•He used the wealth plundered from thetemples to protect his empire from theexpanding kingdoms of Central Asia.
Mohammad of Ghur• After a gap of 150 years in AD1175Mohamad of Ghur a turkish ruler of asmall kingdom in Afghanistanattacked the Indian sub-continent.•He was also calledMohammad.Ghori.•The invasion laid the foundation ofthe Turko-Afghan rule in India. •Mohammad Ghori attacked the five Rajput kingdoms.- •The Rathore of Kanuaj •The Chuahans of Delhi and Ajmer. •The Solankis of Gujarat •The Parmaras of Malwar •The Chandellas of Bundlekhand
MOHAMMAD GHORI’S CONQUEST•In AD 1175, he captured Multan.•Later he defeated the Solanki of Gujarat.•He conquered Peshawar, Sialkot and Punjab•In the First Battle of Tarain Mohammad Ghoridefeated Prithviraj Chauhan but he narrowly escapedfrom being killed.•In the Second Battle of Tarain he defeated Prithviraj.•Later he also defeated Jaichand of the ruler ofKanuaj in AD 1198•The Second Battle of Tarain put an end to theRajput Dynasty.
Qutb-ud-din Aibak• Mohammad Ghori appointed his faithfulgeneral Qutb-ud-aibak as the governor overhis territory.• Qutb-ud-din – aibak further defeated theempires of Mathura, Gwalior, Bundelkhandand Malwa.•Another general Bakhtiar Khalji conqueredBengal and Bihar.
DEATH OF MOHAMMAD GHORI•Mohammad Ghori died while trying to suppress therevolt of the Khokhars.•He did not have any son, so his governors becameindependent rulers.•Fight for power broke out among these governorsand Qutb-ub-din aibak asserted his supremacy.•This is laid the foundation of the Turko-Afghan rule inIndia.
DIFFERENCE BETWEENMahamud of Ghazni Mohammad GhoriTo loot and plunder To set up an empire.IndiaDid not appoint Appointed faithfulgovernors generals who continued to expand the kingdom
There were number of reasons that led to the defeat of the Rajputs.• Weak war machinery- Slow moving elephants Vs guerilla warriors.• Jealousy and hatred- Prithviraj Chauhan and Jaichand• Feudatory nature of the society – no standing army.• Fighting between the feudal lords.• Lacked vigour and determination.• No outstanding leader.
Impact of the raids.•Intermingling of cultures. –lot to give and takebetween Hindu and Muslim culture.•Sharing of knowledge.•Composite culture- manifested in architecture,language, music and food.•Migration of large number of people-soldiers,traders, workers.•Laid the foundation of the slave dynasty.
RECAP MAHMUD OF GHAZNI (1001-1025) BACKGROUND AREAS• Rise of empire in central OVERRAN Asia •Siestan, Multan• Encouraged Persian culture and important even though he was Turk. trading centers in• Looted and plundered India to accumulate resources. lower Indus.• Patronized art, architecture •Rich temples of and literature.- Al-beruni north-west. and Firdausi. •Punjab, Ujjain,• Not interested in building an Kalinga, Kanauj, empire in India. Delhi, Gujarat.
Mohammad of Ghur (1175-1206) CAMPAIGN CONSEQUENCES•Fought five rajput •Turkish rule extended tokingdoms-Rathors,Chauhans, Ganga-Yamuna –DoabSolankis, Paramars, •Suppression of Rajputs andChandellas other smaller kingdoms.•Fought two battles at Tarain •Delhi Sultanate establishedagainst Prithviraj Chauhan- by Aibk after Mohammadwon the second battle. Ghori.•Appointed Qutb-ud-din-aibk •Intermingling andas governor of indian emergence of Indo- Islamicprovinces. culture.•Killed by rebels in 1206