Human cloning are_you_for_it_or_against_it_


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Human cloning are_you_for_it_or_against_it_

  1. 1. Human Cloning: Are You For It or Against It? By Samiyah Basir Per. 8
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><li>Dominant and recessive alleles control the inheritance of traits. Dominant alleles always show up in the organism whenever the allele is present. Recessive alleles are masked whenever the dominant allele is present. If the organism doesn't have the dominant allele, then the trait will be controlled by the recessive alleles. Traits controlled by co- dominant alleles mean that neither allele is dominant nor recessive, resulting in having both alleles present (neither allele is masked in the offspring). The alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring by undergoing meiosis. Each parent's sex cells have half the number of chromosomes in their body cells, so that when they combine, the offspring will have the original amount of chromosomes. Chromosomes carry genes within each pair: one chromosome came from the male parent, and the other came from the female parent . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Human Genome Project <ul><li>The Human Genome Project started in 1990, and was completed in 2003, due to the use of new technology. However, in 2006, researchers announced the completion of more detailed DNA sequences. Scientists' main goal was to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome. Other goals included determining the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA, storing information in databases, and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may progress from the project. Ethical issues include genetic privacy, genetic discrimination, and genetic cloning (miscarriages, style of reproduction, freedom of children and nature of families, etc). Legal implications include gene patenting, and laws against genetic discrimination. Social issues include genetic testing, behavioral genetics, gene therapy, and health insurance. The Human Genome Project changed current laws such as the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) because of ethical and legal implications that started. GINA protects Americans from being treated differently due to their genetic information. It also prohibits insurance companies from discriminating against a person by making unreasonable decisions such as raising prices because a person has a genetic disorder. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Genetic Disorders Single gene disorder Chromosome abnormalities Multifactorial disorders What they have in common *Hereditary disorder caused by a mutant allele of a single gene. *Single gene disorders are inherited through dominant, recessive, and sex linked traits. *Examples: sickle- cell disease, cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease, and Marfan syndrome. *Caused by errors and changes in the amount of chromosomes during cell division, the formation of reproductive cells, and meiosis.  *Most chromosome abnormalities are not passed down to the following generation. *Examples: Down syndrome (an extra copy of chromosome 21), and Turner syndrome. *Conditions caused by mutations in multiple genes, and many contributing factors that are more complex, as apposed to single gene disorders.  *Are difficult to predict whether or not a person will inherit or pass on these disorders because the specific factors that cause them haven't been identified yet. *Examples: diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. *Disease occurs when genes are unable to work properly. *Not all genetic disorders are evident at birth, but may become evident due to specific environmental factors that make contact with the gene. *Genes (located on chromosomes) may be copied incorrectly.
  5. 5. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>If parents are wondering whether or not their child could have a genetic disorder, they can seek genetic counselors that research family history related to any carriers of the allele for the disorder, by using pedigree charts. They could also examine each parent's karyotype for any significant differences in their chromosome pairs, that may determine if either parent carries the allele. Karyotypes show all of the person's chromosomes in a cell, and may reveal that they have an extra copy of chromosome 21 (Down syndrome), or that they have the correct number of chromosomes. By using Punnett squares, genetic counselors can find out the probability of the couple's offspring inheriting a genetic disorder. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Argument 1: Advancement in Research <ul><li>If the government provides money for human cloning research, then scientists can know more about what goes wrong when an embryo doesn't survive. Scientists would be able to study how the cloned embryo grows and develops, which may lead to more answers about how humans evolve. Also, infertile couples would be able to have children that would have the same genotypes as their parents. Therefore, without money for research, how will scientists get more information on types of selective breeding and genetic engineering? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Argument 2: Organ Cloning for People with Diseases <ul><li>One reason for cloning, is to repair organs for sick people with diseases such as lung cancer and heart disease, and those who are put on waiting lists for organs, could possibly die while waiting. Organ cloning is when embryo cells grow new organ tissue. People who need an organ can have one without having to take anti rejection drugs, or having a family member donate an organ. If scientists can further develop cloning technology, then they might be able to understand the composition of genes and the effects of genetic components on human traits in a better manner. Cloning important organs of the human body can save a person's life. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Argument 3: The Risks of Human Cloning Procedures <ul><li>Not all cloned embryos survive and come to full term. Most of the clones either die before birth or in the early stages of life. Cloning human beings is also harmful to the beauty of nature and diversity. There is the possibility of reproducing undesireable traits as well. If the procedure is not successful, cloning can ultimately lead to several lawsuits. Another ethical implication that would be brought on by human cloning, is that it is usually inefficient. All in all, if everyone in a population has the same genetic information, a single disease can wipe out the entire population.  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. Argument 4: Is Human Cloning Really Worth It? <ul><li>Cloning someone's genetic information doesn't promise that they will act the same as their original clone. The person may act completely different, like identical twins with opposite personalities. If someone's genetic information were to get in the wrong hands, such as Adolf Hitler's genetic information, it really wouldn't be that big of a deal for him to be cloned, because Hitler's clone may have different life experiences. Hilter wanted to &quot;cleanse the races&quot; with specific phenotypes such as blonde hair and blue eyes. Cloning is very expensive to retrieve the desired DNA, and to reproduce and maintain homostasis (stable internal living conditions) within the specimen. On top of that there is an overpopulation on earth, as well as food shortages. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Conclusion <ul><li>I am against federal funding for human cloning because I believe that there is no benefit from selectively breeding your child, in order to have the same genotype as you. If we can be sure that cloning can help certain diseases and cure cancer, then that would be great. Cloning would be like everything else that should be used in a good and controlled way. Cloning shouldn't be used to keep good or bad people alive forever, since clones just have the same DNA as their parents, and will most likely develop a different personality. I personally think that human cloning goes against the laws of nature, because you are experimenting with something you don't fully understand. Someone once said,&quot;Leave such matters to God and don't monkey with nature!&quot;  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  11. 11. Work Cited <ul><li>      Cronkite, Donald. Science Explorer: Cells and Heredity. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>     &quot;Genetics.&quot; The Kingfisher Children's Encyclopedia. Sarah Allen. Boston: Kingfisher, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li> _are_the_pros_and_cons_of_cloning </li></ul>