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Human cloning

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By Belinda Bell and Cassidy McGovern

By Belinda Bell and Cassidy McGovern

Published in: Education

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  • 1. By Cassidy McGovern and Belinda Bell Period 6 Human Cloning
  • 2. Basic Principles of Genetics
    • Traits are controlled by recessive and dominant alleles because if a dominant allele is present, it will show and the recessive one will not. However, if a dominant allele is not present and both alleles are recessive, then the recessive trait will show.
    • Co dominant alleles control traits because they both are responsible of the heterozygote’s phenotype and genotype.
    • Each parent contributes one allele into the offspring and the two combine. Whether or not a dominant trait is present determines what trait the offspring will have. If both traits are present, then the dominant one will show but is heterozygous.
  • 3. Human Genome Project
    • The Human Genome project officially began in 1990. Its scientists’ goals were to collect and distribute data, develop in technology, and transfer technology.
    • However, there were implications in regards to ethical, legal, and social beliefs and ideas. Ethically, many people believe that genome analyses contain information that should remain private. Legally, insurance companies may decline coverage if you have a pre-disposition to a genetic mutation. Socially, there may be a physcological impact due to an individual’s genetic differences and people are worried about who controls their DNA, or genetic information.
    • On May 21 st George Bush signed a law into GINA which prevents insurance companies from discriminating based on genetic tests.
  • 4. The 3 Types of Genetic Disorders
    • The three different types of genetic disorders are multifactorial disorders, chromosome abnormalities, and single-gene disorders.
    • Multifactorial disorders are caused when there are mutations in multiple diseases. Some diseases caused by this are colon cancer, Alzheimer's Disease, and breast cancer.
    • Chromosome abnormalities are when whole or parts of chromosomes are missing, duplicated and or altered. Down Syndrome and Klinefelter’s Syndrome is cause by this abnormality.
    • Single-gene disorders happen when the a mutation in the protein product causes a single-gene to be missing or altered. Diseases that can be cause by this are Sickle-Cell Disease, Galactosemia, and Huntington’s Disease.
    • *You can predict these diseases through a pedigree, but there is nothing you can do but prepare yourself for them. You can also get genetic counseling to view all possible alleles
  • 5. Genetic Disorders (continued)
    • Genetic counseling is to help parents who have had genetics disorders and are concerned if they will be passed on to their children. It helps them by evaluating their genetic heredity, ordering genetic tests, and evaluating the results.
    • To help understand genetic disorders people use karyotypes which are organized profiles of a person’s chromosomes. This tell genetic scientists identify chromosome alterations which could lead to genetic disorders.
  • 6. Why Would We Clone Humans? (1)
    • One reason that someone might consider cloning would be if they are infertile, or are not able to have a child. There are procedures that will give them a chance of having a baby, but the odds are against the cloned adult. Many mammals who are cloned do not survive. Aside from that, the cloned children may lack self confidence because they are not their own person, causing psychological problems.
  • 7. Why Would We Clone Humans? (2)
    • Imagine cloning a person. Then that cloned person is recreated through a clone. The clone of the clone may want, or need, to be cloned. If this process continues, entire cities of people may be replaced with the same person, thousands of times cloned to create all perfect people. It sounds like a good plan.
    • However, that means all will be especially vulnerable to one disease, and that one disease may just wipe out the entire population.
  • 8. Why Would We Clone Humans? (3)
    • There is talk of, once cloning is tested on humans, genetically altering an embryo to give it certain color of eyes, or even giving it a resistance to specific diseases. Although this may sound positive at first, this is inappropriate tampering with “Mother Nature” and humans have no idea of the huge consequences that may take place if cloning occurs.
  • 9. Why Would We Clone Humans? (4)
    • Cloning creates a human that is just like another one, so eventually, as the cloned population grows, the diverse and natural population will die out and be replaced with a mass of the same people. If everyone had the same gentic engineering, then people will not have the possibility to reverse what they’ve done and will be stuck with the same genes forever.
  • 10. Why Shouldn’t We Clone Humans? (Therapeutic Cloning)
    • During therapeutic cloning human embryos are destroyed when collecting stem cells that will grow into cells to use for treating diseases. This means that the human embryo could've developed into a living baby but instead is destroyed before it is born. Many people think this is unethical or against practices in their religion.
  • 11. Why Shouldn’t We Clone Humans? (Birth Defects)
    • Scientists are discovering that they have not yet mastered the procedure for cloning for most embryos do not reach birth. Also even the one that do live are usually not very healthy. Most have developmental problems and could die soon after birth. For example, Dolly the Lamb (a cloned animal), had many defects such as arthritis and lung disease.
  • 12. Why shouldn’t we clone humans? (Differences in clones)
    • Cloning seems like a good idea if you can clone another Beethoven and have him be the best composer in the world again. Unfortunately this is not the case. Clones are usually not identical to the donor in appearance or behavior. Depending on the conditions they grow up in, they can be very different from the original human. Some clones may result in epigenetics , which means that there are changes in gene functions without any corresponding change in the DNA sequence.
  • 13. Why Shouldn’t We Clone Humans? (Ethnical Reasons)
    • Some say that human cloning will provide necessary things, such as bone marrow, for people who desperately need it. But is it really right to create a human being for the sole purpose of another? How will the new child feel? Used and invaded is probably the correct answer.
  • 14. Conclusion
    • In conclusion, human cloning is a very bad idea considering the lack of experience our scientists have in that area. There are so many imperfections that jumping into serious business like creating new life would result in huge consequences. Don’t clone humans.
  • 15. Polls
  • 16. Citations
    • &quot;What Are Genetic Disorders?&quot; Learn.Genetics™ . Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/>.
    • &quot;Genetic Counseling.&quot; KidsHealth - the Web's Most Visited Site about Children's Health . Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/genetic/genetic_counseling.html>.
    •   &quot;Make a Karyotype.&quot; Learn.Genetics™ . Web. 10 Mar. 2011. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/traits/karyotype/>.
    • &quot;Want to Know Interesting Info about Human Cloning?&quot; Angelfire: Welcome to Angelfire . Web. 17 Mar. 2011. <http://www.angelfire.com/clone2/infocloning/>.
    • &quot;ABCNEWS.com : Poll: Majority Opposes Cloning.&quot; ABCNews.com: Breaking News, Politics, World News, Good Morning America, Exclusive Interviews - ABC News . Web. 25 Mar. 2011. <http://abcnews.go.com/sections/scitech/DailyNews/poll010816_cloning.html>.