Basic Principles of Genetics A dominant allele masks the effects of its recessive partner. In other words, the dominant allele is expressed, and the recessive allele is not unless you have two recessive alleles . A co dominant allele is when the alleles are neither dominant or recessive. Neither allele is masked in the offspring. Chromosomes separate in a random manner, each egg or sperm receives some chromosomes from the individual's mother and some from the father.
Human Genome Project The Human Genome Project formally started in 1990. The project was intended to complete the working reference genome by 2005, but technical advances have decreased the time frame to thirteen years. From the beginning, it has been understood that the Human Genome Project will have profound ethical, legal and social (ELS) implications; thus, between 3 and 5% of its budget has been devoted to the study of ELS issues. GINA was changed to forbid insurance companies from discriminating through reduced coverage or pricing and prohibits employers from making adverse employment decisions based on a person’s genetic code, this was from the human genome project
Genetic Disorder Three genetic disorders are cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell disease, and hemophilia. Cystic fibrosis is when the body produces abnormally thick mucus in the lungs and intestines. Sickle-cell disease is a genetic disorder that affects the blood. Hemophilia is a genetic disorder in which a person’s blood clots very slowly or not at all. Sickle-cell disease and hemophilia both have to do with blood and all 3 are inside the body.
Genetic Disorder Single gene disorders are genetic conditions caused by the alteration or mutation of a specific gene in the affected person’s DNA . Chromosomal abnormalities are caused by errors in the number or structure of chromosomes . Multifactor disorders are caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. Genetic counselors help couples understand their chances of having a child with a particular genetic disorder. A karyotype can reveal whether a developing baby has the correct number of chromosomes in its cells and whether it’s a boy or girl.
Argument 1 Reproductive Cloning (con) Reproductive cloning would diminish the sense of uniqueness of an individual. It would violate deeply and widely held convictions concerning human individuality and freedom, and could lead to a devaluation of clones in comparison with non-clones. At least 95% of mammalian cloning experiments have resulted in failures in the form of miscarriages, stillbirths, and life-threatening anomalies. Some experts believe no clones are fully healthy. The technique could not be developed in humans without putting the physical safety of the clones and the women who bear them at grave risk.
Argument 2 Human Cloning (cons) Cloning contributes to the decline of genetic diversity. It is diversity that drives evolution and prevents an entire species from disappearing. Human cloning would not only lack in individuality but could produce a new race of individuals who could be easily manipulated. Creating clones would lead to everyone having the same genetic material. And if ever the ability to clone had been lost or unavailable, the human race would have to resort to natural reproduction causing inbreeds. Geneticists could clone actors, models, and even sports greats, decreasing the chances for any new talent to come about. Cloning can also be seen as taking nature into one's own hands. No doctor, scientist, or geneticist has or should be given the power to create life by means of genetic technology. Such power is lethal and could be abused. No mortal is above the natural law, and to tamper with nature equals disaster.
Argument 3 Cloning in Human Life (cons) The first argument against human cloning is straight forward and widely shared, it is dangerous. The report of the one successfully cloned sheep in Scotland was preceded by 276 failures. Cloned human embryos have already been killed in research laboratories. In addition, genetic screening will be used with cloned human embryos and any embryo who does not pass will be killed.
Argument 4 Cloning against Crime If people did go overboard with cloning, then if there is a crime committed , then the police won’t know who it was because there would be to many people who look alike. Many people would have the same finger prints and the same DNA. The wrong person could go to jail. The person who committed the crime would be on the loose.
Conclusion I’m against human cloning because I believe people are individuals, and everyone should be themselves. If anyone starts to clone themselves, then they could make so many clones to last a very long time. People would get board of the same person over the years. Since the clones are pretty much the same as the original person, they will start engineering there own clones.
Works Cited http://www.worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar119610&st=human+cloning http://www.worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar253940&st=Basic+Principles+Of+Genetics Cells and Heredity Textbook pg.92 http://www.reproductivegenetics.com/single_gene.html http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/birthdefects_chromosomal.html Cells and Heredity Textbook pg. 122, 123 http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=282 http://interactivemathvision.com/PaisPortfolio/javasp98/StudentWebsites/AzzahJ/GenomicsProject/Cons-Cloning.html http://www.all.org/article/index/id/MjQ1OQ