Basic Principles of Genetics Alleles are the different forms of a gene A gene is a segment of DNA of a chromosome that codes for a specific trait If there is a dominant allele present it will always be expressed. For the recessive allele to be expressed the dominant allele cannot be present.
Basic Principles of Genetics When traits are controlled by co-dominant alleles, there are no recessive copies present. Both alleles are dominant and are expressed at the same time, resulting in a heterozygous dominant organism. The offspring gets its genes/alleles from its parent carried through chromosomes
Punnett Square Shows the possible outcome of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Human Genome Project (HGP) The HGP started in the late 1980s The National Human Genome Research Institute's (NHGRI) Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) Research Program was established in 1990 as part of the (HGP) The project was organized by the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the Department of Energy. The point of it is to track your genetic traits and see why you got received specific traits
Human Genome Project cont. The main goal of the human genome project was to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome. The project was used to determine what each gene does in the human body, how mutations to genes occur and then result in genetic diseases. This information may help researchers develop tests and treatments for genetic diseases
Human Genome Project cont. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) is a federal law prohibiting discrimination in health coverage and employment on the basis of genetic information.
Genetic Disorders Genetic disorder - an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes A genetic disorder is caused by mutations or changes in a person’s DNA
Examples of Single Gene Disorders Sickle cell – a disease in which the hemoglobin of the blood does not carry enough oxygen. The hemoglobin has a sickle shape and can get stuck in blood vessels. It is a painful disease and makes the person very weak.
Cystic Fibrosis - a disease where the body produces abnormal thick mucus in the lungs and intestines. The mucus can get caught in the baby’s lungs making breathing difficult and digestion difficult as well.
Examples of Chromosome Abnormalities Down syndrome occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21 in a person’s DNA Have a distinctive physical appearance Have some delayed developmental process compared to their age…like how old you should be when you walk.
Examples of Chromosome Abnormalities Prader-Willi Syndrome occurs when the region of the paternal chromosome 15 containing these genes is missing Small hands and feet delayed or incomplete developing learning disabled Uncontrolled appetite leading to obesity
Genetic Counseling Genetic counseling may be helpful to a couple wanting to have a baby if there are certain diseases in their family Genetic counselors use principles of probability to help couples determine how likely they are to have a child with a specific disease if one or both have the allele for that disease. Results of counseling may guide a couple’s decision to either have natural or adopted children
Human Cloning Argument 1 Pro: Human Cloning may be helpful to a person with a disease in which they would need an exact matching DNA organ or blood donor. A clone would be an exact match and could save their life.
Human Cloning Argument 2 Pro: If a mother wanted a child to look just like her because she wanted to have the same genetics as her. The child would resemble the mother when she was at the age the child is at.
Human Cloning Argument 3 Con: If the clone committed a crime, there could be DNA evidence against the wrong individual. The innocent person may be put in prison or fined for a crime they did not commit.
Human Cloning Argument 4 Con: A cloned person may not be accepted as an original and true person that is unique. For example if a child died and the parents thought that a clone would replace the lost child, they may have certain expectations and may never really accept the cloned child in the way they did with their original child.
Conclusion I think that there are many good things and bad things about Human Cloning. If there needs to be a donor of blood, body organs or tissue for a rare disease, it can easily be donated without rejection. A negative thing would be a child that does not look unique or have unique DNA, like every other person who isn't a clone.
Works Cited http://www.genome.gov/page.cfm?pageID=10001618 http://www.genome.gov/Pages/PolicyEthics/GeneticDiscrimination/GINAInfoDoc.pdf http://www.genome.gov/19016930 Science Explorer Cells and Heredity, Cronkite, Donald, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2000
Works Cited http://www.geneticsandsociety.org/article.php?id=282 http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/about.shtml http://www.google.com/images?as_q=down+syndrome+chromosomes&um=1&hl=en&rlz=1T4ADRA_enUS382US385&biw=917&bih=518&output=search&tbs=isch:1,iur:f&btnG=Google+Search&as_epq=&as_oq=&as_eq=&as_sitesearch=&safe=images&as_st=y