Genetics research


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By Ellen Xing
Cloning Endangered and Extinct Species

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Genetics research

  1. 1. Saving the Endangered and Extinct Ellen Xing Period 3
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><li>Dominant and recessive alleles control the genotype and phenotype of a person. When a dominant allele for a trait is present, it always shows even if it’s paired with a recessive allele. A recessive allele is always “hidden” or not shown when it’s paired with a dominant allele. The recessive allele is only shown if both alleles are recessive, therefore there is no dominant allele present. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a trait is controlled with co-dominant alleles, there are no recessive allele there. Both alleles are different dominant alleles but they don’t blend. Instead, they show both dominant alleles together. For example, if one guinea pig parent has black fur which is dominant) and the other parent has brown fur which is also dominant) then the offspring would have both brown and black fur. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how the alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The passing of alleles from parents to offspring is called heredity. This is when an offspring inherits one allele from each parent for a certain trait. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Human Genome Project <ul><li>Human Genome Project idea started in the 1980’s but was launched in 1990. The goal was to provide information researchers needed about the genetic basis of all diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Some feel that the human genome project is wrong because they believe that people would feel horrible if they found something wrong with their genetic makeup. Others feel that the research is necessary because the research could find how to stop diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>If people knew if you were predisposed to a certain disease, you could become discriminated against in the work place. Insurance companies might not want to cover you if you are predisposed to a disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the Human Genome Project became a big issue, GINA was made to protect people against discrimination by insurance companies on the basis of genetic information. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Genetic Disorder <ul><li>All three disorders (single cell disorder, chromosome abnormalities, and malfunctioning disorders) are all caused by different things such as an extra chromosome or a mutation. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic counseling can help parents because they can use this to see whether or not their child could inherit disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can use karyotypes to predict genetic disorders in their children. Karyotypes show the chromosome makeup of the parents to see if they could produce an offspring with an abnormal amount of chromosomes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Argument 1 Controversy <ul><li>Cloning extinct or endangered species can cause a lot of controversy </li></ul><ul><li>People who are strongly against it could rally and petition. </li></ul><ul><li>This could cause many problems and it might be hard to control their petitions to a minimum. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people who are religious feel that cloning an animal is anti-God and against the rights of nature. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Argument 2 Saving the Endangered <ul><li>Countless number of endangered species in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of animals going extinct are increasing rapidly </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the extinctions are because of humans taking their homes or hunting them </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning endangered and extinct animals can save them and increase their population </li></ul><ul><li>The world would be allowed to view creatures that they’ve never seen before </li></ul>
  7. 7. Argument 3 Birth Defects <ul><li>genes of cloned animals can behave in unpredictable ways </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning endangered and extinct species could lead to many defects </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Dolly the sheep (a cloned sheep) had lung defects, arthritis, and was born with chromosomes with shortened telomeres </li></ul><ul><li>other defects found in cloned animals: gigantism (excessive size), heart defects, lung problems, and malfunctioning immune systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Clone could also have a shorter life </li></ul>First Cloned Dog
  8. 8. Argument 4 Knowledge <ul><li>Could gain much more info from a clone than a fossil </li></ul><ul><li>If cloning is successful, we can learn more about cloning </li></ul><ul><li>Can use the research to prove theories that scientists already have </li></ul><ul><li>Can learn not only about cloning, but also about evolution and the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>If an extinct animal was cloned, general people could learn about the animal and get educational value. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Conclusion I’ve learned many things during this project. Even though there are some situations that prove cloning endangered and extinct species to be a bad idea, I am still for it. Humans have caused countless species to become extinct and become endangered. Shouldn’t we be responsible to help bring their populations back? If we could clone endangered or extinct species, we’d be able to view many different animals that we’ve never seen in real life before. It could also give our scientists so much more information on cloning. Not only that, but we could even learn more about things such as evolution, the earth, and we could prove theories that the scientists already have. The actual animal would provide so much more information than a fossil or a piece of writing. Though they may have a few birth defects, and it may take multiple tries, after time I believe that scientists can maintain a clone to live as a regular animal.
  10. 10. Works Cited &quot;Dolly the Sheep: Information from; Wiki Q&A Combined with Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Encyclopedias . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.   Endangered Species International . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.   &quot;Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.   &quot;A Revolution in Progress: Human Genetics and Medical Research.&quot; Office of History, National Institutes of Health . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.   &quot;Scientists Announce World's First Cloned Dog - Photo - LIFE.&quot; LIFE - Your World in Pictures . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>.
  11. 11. &quot;Rasmussen Reports: Partisan Trends….Number of Democrats Falls to New Low | Solid Principles.&quot; Solid Principles: Principles of Conservatism Since 2009 . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>. Works Cited &quot;New Page 1.&quot; Welcome to the University of Dubuque . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. < to webquest.htm>.