Genetic modification of_food.ppt2


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Genetic modification of_food.ppt2

  1. 1. Genetic Modification of Food Sienna Perry Period 8
  2. 2. Basic Principles of Genetics <ul><li>Dominant alleles are always present. </li></ul><ul><li>To have recessive trait, you need two recessive alleles. </li></ul><ul><li>When alleles are co-dominant, both alleles are shown. </li></ul><ul><li>When the DNA splits the offspring receives half of each parent’s alleles. Punnett squares can be used to show the possible allele combinations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Genome Project <ul><li>Launched in the 1980’s in hope that scientists will understand genetic basis of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: Who should know about you genetic makeup… health care providers, schools, employers. If they knew how would they treat you? Would they think you’re not capable of something? Is it ok to know that information if there’s a possibility of people discriminating? </li></ul><ul><li>These problems resulted in the law G.I.N.A (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act), signed by President Bush, which protected citizens from being discriminated against by insurers and employers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Single Gene Disorders: . Cased by mutation in a single gene. this can actually be found in the families pedigree because it is inherited to the child from the parents if they had the disease or carried it from their ancestors. The alleles from the parents go from them to the child from when the two halves of the DNA combine. Example: One caused by recessive allele is sickle cell, where the blood lacks oxygen, causing pain and weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome abnormalities: caused when there is failure of replicated chromosome during it going through meiosis the 2 nd time. Chromosome lacks a gamete to produce correct embryo. Examples: In Down syndrome, there is a problem with the 21 st chromosome, which leads to mental retardation problems for the person </li></ul><ul><li>Multifactoral Disorders: caused by genes mutating which has lifestyle and environmental factors in it as well. These disorders don’t usually happen until a bit later on in life. The disorder can actually run in families, but the disorders are usually triggered by the persons lifestyle or their environment. Example: Alzheimer's disease, happens later on life, the loss of some brain functions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>If parents go in for genetic counseling, they can find out whether they are at risk of actually passing a disorder to the baby by looking at the family pedigree , which can tell them if they are carries of one of these possible disorders??? </li></ul><ul><li>Karyotpe , show pictures of all of the chromosomes in a cell in arranged pairs. This can reveal if the baby has the right number of chromosomes in it’s cell. So if the doctor does see something is wrong, like a missing chromosome, they could either predict or possibly tell what disorder the baby could have. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cloning <ul><li>Since the start of natural cloning , scientist have modified this. In 1987, they first cloned a mammal which lead to many new things today. Now a day, they are able to replicate regular farm day animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Some controversial things on this topic of cloning or engineering the genes of an animal is that this is going against the way of nature. They are copying animals, not letting what should happen naturally that has always happened since the beginning of time. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is genetically enhanced food… why do they do this? <ul><li>Genetically enhanced food when the crop’s genetic makeup is changed purposely to either grow better, or be better quality then the original </li></ul><ul><li>They have started to do this to have food stay fresher longer, reduce man power in planting with pesticides, make it richer possibly in certain vitamins, or in crops to possibly make them withstand weather </li></ul>
  8. 8. Genetic Modification of Food Arguments on Topic The Pro’s This shows how genetically enhanced food has raised from 1996 to 2003 around the world
  9. 9. Argument 1 <ul><li>This can improve the nutrition of the food, they can actually make the food have more nutrition, helping in diets. They might be able to add vitamin and minerals that we need everyday. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This could be helpful, could decrease obesity throughout the world possibly. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Argument 2 <ul><li>While the food is growing or developing, they could make the food resistance to getting diseases. This could result in more food that can be sold to the general public. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We do need more food for the growing population, that would be a good thing so that not so many people are going hungry. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Genetic Modification of Food The Con’s <ul><li>Image from 2003, shows different countries on how they rely on genetically modified food </li></ul>
  12. 12. Argument 3 <ul><li>“ The World Health Organization, the British and American Medical Associations, and several other groups have expressed concern that if the “antibiotic resistant marker genes” used in GM foods got transferred to bacteria, it could create super diseases that cannot be treated with antibiotics” </li></ul><ul><li>from </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is putting people at risk, which can cause many deaths if this was to actually happen. Would you rather have natural grown food that grows at the natural rate or risk your own health just to have food that possibly grows faster? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Argument 4 <ul><li>“ Rats fed GM soy showed odd shaped cell nuclei in their livers. Rats fed GM canola had livers that were 15% heavier, and rats fed GM corn had several unexplained anomalies. Pigs fed GM corn on more than twenty farms in the Midwest developed false pregnancies and other reproductive problems. Twelve cows fed GM corn mysteriously died in Germany. And eyewitness reports from all over North American describe how several types of animals, including cows, pigs, geese, elk, deer, squirrels, and rats, when given a choice, avoid eating GM foods.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This should set peoples guards up. It should have you wondering whether it is actually worth it to change the DNA of food. It is effecting the health of these animals, which means that they could possibly affect humans as well. Is it seriously worth it to risk your health over something like this? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Argument 5 <ul><li>“ Milk and dairy products from cows treated with the genetically engineered bovine growth hormone (bGH) milk contain an increased amount of the hormone IGF-1, which is one of the highest risk factors associated with breast 7 and prostate cancer.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diseases we already worry about in our community just from our lifestyle’s and hereditary… there is already the risk of inheriting it from your family. Think about it… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>What can be the long term affect? We don’t know how it will effect us or the organism in the future. Genetically enhancing food could possibly lead to unknown or new diseases. It makes more sense to just grow the food how it was naturally rather than risk something that could possibly change our DNA now or in the future generation. So I don’t think that the government should fund this. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Citations <ul><li>&quot;Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?&quot; CSA . Web. 23 Mar. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;History of Cloning.&quot; Http:// . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Http://; Http:// . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffrey M. Smith. &quot;Eating Genetically Modified Food Is Gambling with Your Health.&quot; Http:// . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffrey M. Smith. &quot;Eating Genetically Modified Food Is Gambling with Your Health.&quot; Web. 24 Mar. 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;A Revolution in Progress: Human Genetics and Medical Research.&quot; Office of History, National Institutes of Health . Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <>. </li></ul>