Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Genetic Issues
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Genetic Issues

1,471

Published on

A. Hugh …

A. Hugh
Period:3

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,471
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Designer Babies Amanda Hugh Period 3
  • 2. Basic Principles of Genetics 1) How are traits controlled by dominant and recessive alleles ? Traits are controlled by dominant and recessive alleles by it’s genotype, the genetic features, and its phenotype, the physical features. Whenever a dominant allele is present, its trait is always shown. The only way a recessive trait can be shown is when both sides from mother and father are recessive. For example, being tall is dominant while being small is recessive. If a person’s genotype is heterozygous or homozygous tall, its phenotype will be tall. If a person’s genotype is homozygous small, its phenotype will be small. One way to find possible traits of your offspring is by using a punnett square. A punnett square is a chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic crossing . 2)How are traits controlled with co- dominant alleles ? Traits are controlled by co- dominance because there are no recessive alleles . There are two dominant alleles , so when combined (heterozygous) both genotypes show as a phenotype. 3)Explain how the alleles of two parents combine to express traits in offspring. In humans most cells have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs). A typical cell goes through meiosis, which is mitosis twice without interphase the second time. The cell is now four new cells (sex) having 23 chromosomes , which is half the normal amount. When the two sex cells( sperm and egg) combine, the newly fertilized embryo will now have the full 46 chromosomes .
  • 3. Human Genome Project 1) When did the project start and how did the scientists hope to use this information (what were the goals from the beginning)? The Human Genome Project was launched in the 1980s, but officially started in 1990. Scientists were hoping to find genetic information needed by researchers to understand the genetic bases of all diseases. More specifically, scientists wanted to identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA , determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA , store the information collected, improve tools for data analysis, transfer related technologies to a private sector, and address all ethical, legal, and social issues that may come about during the project. 2) What were the implications of the Human Genome project in regards to Ethical, legal, and social implications? Ethically: - some companies may discriminate you from working at their company - insurance companies may not accept you due to your DNA results - insurance companies won't want to pay out your policy Legal: - companies can not disregard hiring a person due to their genetic codes - stated by law companies can not request a person’s genetic information Social: - people may avoid contact with a person with the results in their DNA of a certain disease - knowing your chances of disease, you may feel limited in life and make poor decisions - you may “waste” your life and never have even gotten the disease 3) What law exist to protect us from genetic discrimination in insurance and the workplace? GINA (Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008) is a law which protects the human race from discrimination in the cases of insurance and work. The law was signed by president Bush on May 21 st , 2008. It prohibits U.S. companies and employers from discriminating due to results of genetic test results. Insurance companies and businesses are also prohibited from basing decisions on results of tests. (ex: Hiring for jobs and reducing coverage or pricing in insurance) Insurers and employers are not allowed to request genetic testing.
  • 4. Genetic Disorders <ul><li>Compare and contrast the three different types of genetic disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders? </li></ul><ul><li>How can genetic counseling help prospective parents who have a genetic disorder regarding future children? </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic counseling helps couples understand the probability of their offspring receiving particular genetic disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic counselors may use karyotypes , pedigrees , and or punnett squares to visually examine possible offsprings. </li></ul><ul><li>The counselor may also order tests to determine if the couple are carriers of alleles resembling a genetic disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>3. How are karyotypes used to predict genetic disorders? </li></ul><ul><li>A karyotype is a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell. Doctors use them to examine </li></ul><ul><li>chromosomes (which are in pairs). When examining a karyotype you can see if a fetus </li></ul><ul><li>has the correct number of chromosomes in its cell and see whether it’s a girl or boy. </li></ul>Genetic disorders are caused by mutations , or changes in a person’s DNA Single Gene Disorder Chromosome Abnormalities Multifactorial Disorders All Three <ul><li>caused by the alteration or mutation in a person’s DNA . </li></ul><ul><li>heritable in families </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>- Cystic Fibrosis </li></ul><ul><li>- Sickle Cell Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>- Hemophilia </li></ul><ul><li>caused by too many or too few chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Often occur when chromosomes fail to separate </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Down Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Turner Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Triple X </li></ul><ul><li>caused by effects of multiple genes and lifestyle and environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Often occur in families, but are not ongoing through inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Heart Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul>- Cause social and or physical abnormalities
  • 5. What is a Designer Baby? <ul><li> “ Designer Baby is defined as a baby whose genetic makeup has been artificially selected by genetic engineering, combined </li></ul><ul><li>with in vitro fertilization to ensure the presence or absence of certain genes or characteristics.” In vitro fertilization was originally </li></ul><ul><li>an option given to couples who were unable to conceive. An egg and sperm would be placed in a test tube and fertilization would </li></ul><ul><li>occur there. The embryo would be inserted or implanted in the mother’s uterus. Today doctors can genetically screen unborn </li></ul><ul><li>babies for their gender and genetic disorders. Genetic screening can reduce a baby’s chances of being born with a disorder. Not all </li></ul><ul><li>couples can pick gender, but doctors will sometimes allow a choice because boy or girl may be more likely to receive a certain </li></ul><ul><li>disorder . An example is hemophilia which is a sex linked trait or disorder more likely to occur in males. A male only needs one </li></ul><ul><li>allele for the disorder while the female needs two as in colorblindness. Some doctors are now taking designer babies to the next </li></ul><ul><li>level. Certain parents are given the option of picking a baby’s gender, eye color, hair color, athletic ability, level of intelligence, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Couples do not have all options of colors or other traits. The offspring can only have the traits (phenotypes of allele </li></ul><ul><li>combinations) that each parent has, unless there is a donor with the trait wanted. There is much controversy being created about </li></ul><ul><li>the actions and term designer baby. Ethics is one of the greatest topics of discussion. Are you taking away a child’s life? Are you </li></ul><ul><li>raising your dream self? What? Each designer baby can cost even more than $18,500 and up to $5,000 just for gender. </li></ul>To watch this video about “designer babies”, double left click.
  • 6. Pros of Designer Babies Genetic screening can reduce the probability of your child being born with a certain disorder. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) also known as genetic screening, is when a doctor screens an embryo made by in vitro fertilization before it is implanted in the mother’s womb. The doctor searches for genetic mutations , and for any type of disorder. Doctors want only to implant an embryo free of any disease or disorder, a specific one that is being screened for. If you have a child who has a disease, you can use your new baby’s core blood to heal your already born child of it’s disease. When this procedure is performed, about a hundred eggs (of the mother’s) are removed from the ovaries and placed into different tubes with the father’s sperm. The newly fertilized fetus’s are screened for the disease the couples sick child has. When a fetus without the disease is found it is implanted into the mother’s womb or continues developing in the tube. When born, the new baby’s core blood is removed and used to cure the sick child of his or her disease. A designer baby’s bone marrow can also be used to cure another child of disease such as a blood disorder. Designer babies can eventually wipe out certain diseases. If designer babies are continuously genetically modified to not have a specific disease, future generations will eventually be without that disease. If it’s not there to be passed on, it will luckily be wiped off the planet. You can have the child of your dreams. You will be able to pick out the traits you want you want your child to have as long as you or you “hubby” are carriers of the particular trait. If neither of you happen to be carriers, you can get a donor. You can even pick out personality, level of athletics, and level of intelligence. Unfortunately, you can not decide if your baby will have an innie or an outtie.
  • 7. Cons of Designer Babies Certain races may be outnumbered and looked at negatively. If a large percentage of people are making designer babies and want very similar features or traits, “different” people will be looked down on and discriminated. They will be excluded, verbally, and physically bullied. If there is a much greater percentage of a specific group of people, others will be forgotten. If the child doesn’t meet the parent’s expectations, he or she make be looked at as a mistake. Making a designer baby is a very costly procedure. Including traits, gender, and all, it can total out to be more than $18,500. Usually when a purchase of this cost is made, people have high expectations of the product. (in this case a designer baby) If the child does not meet the parents expectations, the child may be looked at as a science project that has failed or a mishap. The child may be treated with very negative and brutal comment. The child may be treated poorly. One mistake could damage future generations. Genes relay on other genes so when you remove certain diseases or disorders through screening, you could have also removed a link that causes immunity to a certain disease. Removing the immunity could cause a mutation which could also cause a new disease. If no one has the antibodies for the new disease, many people could die and it may even by unknown why. It could take years for scientist to discover the cause of the deaths, and than find a treatment. One gender may outbalance the other. If one gender is repeatedly made through a designer baby, it may outbalance the other. People may favor one for religious causes or simply for taking care of the parent later on. An example is in China. In China, males are favored because they stay with their family and care for them while the females when married, move away with their husbands. Already people are seeing the effects of imbalanced gender as there are not enough woman in China for men to marry. As a result more and more women are being abducted. ?
  • 8. At the beginning, the phrase “designer babies”, literally made me want to vomit. Is that even ethical? Is that legal? Isn’t that taking a child’s life away? Well, at that time I hadn’t done much research but I had a general idea on the topic. After doing a whole bunch of research (emphasize the whole bunch), I changed my mind. I still believe the idea of traits is stupid (unethical), but to subtract a disorder and help another human, is starting to agree with me. As long as the new baby is not losing it’s life and was already wanted by the family, I think I’m okay with it. I want the new child to come to a loving family with open arms. For those who just want the next Michael Jordan or Eminem, my advice is get your wealthy hands off your money and put it to good use (please donate to animal shelters and places helping people in abusive situations). Anyway, I’d say only use this procedure for medical reasons and love your new baby however it comes out. Remember, a cautious decision is a good decision! Good luck!
  • 9. Glossary <ul><li>Alleles : the different forms of a gene </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome : a double rod of condensed chromatin; contains DNA that carries genetic information </li></ul><ul><li>Cloning : to genetically duplicate an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant Allele : an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present </li></ul><ul><li>DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) : the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Gene : a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Disorder : an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics : the scientific study of heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype : an organism’s genetic makeup, or allele combination </li></ul><ul><li>Heredity : the passing of traits to offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Heterozygous : having two different alleles for one trait </li></ul><ul><li>Homozygous : having two identical alleles for one trait </li></ul><ul><li>In Vitro Fertilization : an option given to couple who can’t conceive; an egg and sperm are placed in a test tube and fertilization occurs, </li></ul><ul><li>the embryo is implanted in the mother’s uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Karyotype : a photograph of a all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation : a change in a gene or chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus : a cell structure that contains nucleic acids, the chemical instructions that all the cell’s activities (“the brain”) </li></ul><ul><li>Pedigree : a chart or “family tree” that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotype : an organism’s physical appearance; or visible traits </li></ul><ul><li>Punnett Square : a chart that shows all possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic crossing </li></ul><ul><li>Recessive Allele : an allele that is “masked” when a dominant allele is present </li></ul><ul><li>Trait : a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes </li></ul>
  • 10. Works Cited <ul><li>&quot;A Revolution in Progress: Human Genetics and Medical Research.&quot; Office of History, National Institutes of Health . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/genetics/sect5f.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The Need to Regulate &quot;Designer Babies&quot;: Scientific American.&quot; Science News, Articles and Information | Scientific American . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=regulate-designer-babies>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues --Genome Research.&quot; Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Designer Baby Shopping ... Literally | Momlogic.com.&quot; Mom News, Health, Beauty, Fashion, Celebrity Moms, Baby Names and More | Momlogic.com . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.momlogic.com/2009/02/pick_your_babys_gender_hair_color.php>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Designer Babies Are a Terrible Idea.&quot; Io9. We Come from the Future. Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://m.io9.com/5119068/designer-babies-are-a-terrible-idea>. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Culture Journal | Real Clear Religion | Death of the West and Western Culture Dogma Christian Catholic . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.realclearreligion.com/index_files/category-biological-experimentation-0026-madness-.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Adorable Newborn Baby Photography Session for Ruiz Family » Legacy Imagery Wedding and Family Photography.&quot; Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://legacyimagery.com/Blog/?p=6>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What Hath Anne Geddes Wrought?&quot; The Greatest Pending Facebook Friend Rejects . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://facebookrejects.blogspot.com/2008/07/shining-meets-child-of-corn.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Anne Geddes 04 Wallpapers | 1024x768.&quot; Desktop Wallpapers - Wallpaper Pimper.com . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.wallpaperpimper.com/wallpaper/download-wallpaper-Anne_Geddes_04-size-1024x768-id-139525.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;EasyBib: Your Bibliography / Works Cited List.&quot; EasyBib: Free Bibliography Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago Citation Styles . Web. 19 Mar. 2011. <http://www.easybib.com/cite/view>. </li></ul><ul><li>Padilla, Michael J., Ioannis Miaoulis, Martha Cyr, and Donald L. Cronkite. Cells and Heredity . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Human Genetics.&quot; Estrella Mountain Community College . Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookhumgen.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;It Takes Two | Science Fair Project Idea | Education.com.&quot; Education.com | An Education & Child Development Site for Parents | Parenting & Educational Resource . Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://www.education.com/science-fair/article/biology_it-takes/>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;A Revolution in Progress: Human Genetics and Medical Research.&quot; Office of History, National Institutes of Health . Web. 20 Mar. 2011. <http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/genetics/sect2f.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Single Gene Disorders.&quot; Reproductive Genetics Institute: PGD Experts . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.reproductivegenetics.com/single_gene.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>..., March Of. &quot;Chromosomal Abnormalities | Baby | March of Dimes.&quot; Pregnancy, Baby, Prematurity, Birth Defects | March of Dimes . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.marchofdimes.com/baby/birthdefects_chromosomal.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What Are Complex or Multifactorial Disorders? - Genetics Home Reference.&quot; Genetics Home Reference - Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/mutationsanddisorders/complexdisorders>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Discovery Health &quot;How In Vitro Fertilization Works&quot;&quot; Discovery Health &quot;Health Guides&quot; Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://health.howstuffworks.com/pregnancy-and-parenting/pregnancy/fertility/in-vitro-fertilization.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;10/31/10 - 11/7/10.&quot; The Baby Signing Blog . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://thebabysigningbook.blogspot.com/2010_10_31_archive.html>. </li></ul>
  • 11. More Work Cited <ul><li>&quot;Google Image Result for Http://www.beltie.org/beltiemag/2005/images/BIASWildRed05.jpg.&quot; Google . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.beltie.org/beltiemag/2005/images/BIASWildRed05.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.beltie.org/beltiemag/2005/color05.html&usg=__FpxwsbRdeSeEtiCufSp_k9RlOLQ=&h=190&w=300&sz=58&hl=en&start=15&zoom=1&itbs=1&tbnid=KRPPVaDUgvrFaM:&tbnh=73&tbnw=116&prev=/images?q=heterozygous+cattle&hl=en&safe=active&gbv=2&tbs=isch:1&ei=M1qHTa2PH8TcgQfb6ajHCA>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Google Image Result for Http://www.beltie.org/beltiemag/2005/images/BIASWildRed05.jpg.&quot; Google . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.beltie.org/beltiemag/2005/images/BIASWildRed05.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.beltie.org/beltiemag/2005/color05.html&usg=__FpxwsbRdeSeEtiCufSp_k9RlOLQ=&h=190&w=300&sz=58&hl=en&start=15&zoom=1&itbs=1&tbnid=KRPPVaDUgvrFaM:&tbnh=73&tbnw=116&prev=/images?q=heterozygous+cattle&hl=en&safe=active&gbv=2&tbs=isch:1&ei=M1qHTa2PH8TcgQfb6ajHCA>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Karyotype.&quot; Psychology Wiki . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Karyotype>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Genetics.&quot; Goldie's Room On-Line . Web. 21 Mar. 2011. <http://www.goldiesroom.org/Note Packets/18 Genetics/00 Genetics--WHOLE.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Designer Babies – Like It Or Not, Here They Come | Singularity Hub.&quot; Singularity Blog Covering Robots, Genetics, Stem Cells, Transhumanism, The Brain, The Future . Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://singularityhub.com/2009/02/25/designer-babies-like-it-or-not-here-they-come/>. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, Priya. &quot;Pros and Cons of Designer Babies.&quot; Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web . Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-designer-babies.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Designer Babies, Image Search | Ask.com.&quot; Ask.com - What's Your Question? Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ask.com/pictures?qsrc=167&o=0&l=dir&q=designer babies&v=14>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Designer Babies Pros and Cons.&quot; Isakovaskificyq . Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://isakovaskificyq.blogspot.com/2011/03/designer-babies-pros-and-cons.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Designer BABIES !!!&quot; Canadian Content Forums . Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://forums.canadiancontent.net/international-politics/59352-designer-babies.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Cute Babies.&quot; Anvari.Org . Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://www.anvari.org/fun/Cute_Kids/Cute_Babies.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;How See, Hear and Feel Your Newborn?&quot; News Health - Health News . Web. 22 Mar. 2011. <http://newshealth.net/how-see-hear-and-feel-your-newborn/>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;What Is PGD?: A Look at Embryo Screening for Genetic Diseases.&quot; Find Health, Education, Science & Technology Articles, Reviews, How-To and Tech Tips At Bright Hub - Apply To Be A Writer Today! Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.brighthub.com/science/genetics/articles/22735.aspx>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Umbilical Cord Quiz.&quot; Baby, Toddlers, Kids & Parenting | LilSugar . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.lilsugar.com/Umbilical-Cord-Quiz-2475375>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Eye Color Explained | Genes & Health | DISCOVER Magazine.&quot; Science and Technology News, Science Articles | Discover Magazine . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://discovermagazine.com/2007/mar/eye-color-explained>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Color Chart.&quot; Lace Wigs,Full Lace Wigs,Full Lace Wigs,Full Lace Wig . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.extremelace.net/Color-Chart_ep_34-1.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>Header, My. &quot;Dear Mommy…(Love from Heaven) | Bites of Life.&quot; Bites of Life | If You Are Offended By My Header, You Probably Shouldn't Read My Blog . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://dinnertabletalk.com/2010/04/dear-mommy/>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Gender Imbalance Ruins Local Wank-Fest.&quot; The Antisocial Ladder . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://antisocial-ladder.blogspot.com/2010/06/gender-imbalance-ruins-local-wank-fest.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Cleveland Discrimination Attorney | Ohio Sexual Harassment Lawyer | Oh Racial Discrimination Law Firm.&quot; Cleveland Trial Lawyer | Ohio Criminal Attorney | Oh Injury Law Firm | Cuyahoga County . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.demarcotriscaro.com/cleveland/discrimination-lawyer.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Family Tree Stencil.&quot; Wall Stencils, Animal Patterns, Paint Stencils, Stencil Designs, Stencil . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.theartfulstencil.com/family-tree.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Stock Photograph of Young Asian Girl Frowning - World of Stock Photos.&quot; World of Stock - Stock Photos and Fine Art Prints . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.worldofstock.com/stock_photos/PCH2332.php>. </li></ul><ul><li>Yavorcik, Carin. &quot;November | 2008 | ICARE4autism.&quot; ICARE4autism | International Center for Autism Research & Education . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://icare4autism.wordpress.com/2008/11/>. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Confused Scientist | Thinkstock Stock Photo Subscription.&quot; Stock Photos, Royalty-free Subscription Plan | Thinkstock . Web. 24 Mar. 2011. <http://www.thinkstockphotos.com/image/91521439>. </li></ul>

×