Basic Principles of Genetics 1. If the trait is controlled by a dominant allele then the recessive allele is masked and the dominant allele shows. And the only time the recessive allele shows up is when the dominant allele is not present. 2. The co-dominant allele is controlled by the allele, not being dominant or recessive which causes a mix. 3. The chromosome pairs separate and they are distributed to two different cells. Then the sex cells have half of the chromosomes that the other cells have in an organism. T=Tall-Dominant t=Short- Recessive 50% Genetic engineering can prove the Punnett square. T t T T T Tt t Tt tt
Human Genome Project 1. The Human Genome Project started in 1990. The goals of this project were to identify all of the genes in the human DNA, and also determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up DNA. This project is to store this information in databases, and to improve tools for data analysis. The Human Genome project is also to transfer related technologies to the private sector and address the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project. 2 . One place where the Human Genome Project is being applied is in medicine. All disorders have to do with genetics. The research is important because they are trying to find cures for these disorders. Almost all cures for genetics will be found using this project. The main goal is to try to treat, cure, and/or prevent these disorders from developing. 3. One law that was passed in 2008 to protect us from genetic discrimination in insurance and in the workplace is Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. This act states that just because you have a genetic disorder doesn’t mean that you can be discriminated for a job or insurance. Here is a link to that law. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/legislat.shtml
Genetic Disorder 2.Genetic Counseling can help parents who have a genetic disorder by letting the parents know if the mother is a carrier, and can warn them if their kids will have a disorder. They find this by using tools such as; karyotypes , pedigree charts, and Punnett squares. 1. manufactorial disorder Gene Disorder Chromosomal when the disease or disorder is controlled by several genes instead of just one gene. Example: Heart Disease or Diabetes. caused by mutations or changes in a persons DNA. Some disorders are colorblindness, Hemophilia, and Cystic Fibrosis . is when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21 which is a result of an error during meiosis. Examples: Down Syndrome, and Kleinfelters Disease
Argument 1 I think that organ cloning is a good thing because if a patient at a hospital needs an organ there could be a healthy clone that can help the patient to be healthy again. Also the scientists have been testing organ cloning on animals for a while now and it works. In my opinion we should at least try to clone human organs and see what happens.
Argument 2 I think that organ cloning is a good thing because they have already cloned the organs of sheep, pigs and goats so why can’t they do it to humans. A good example of this is Dolly. Dolly was cloned and is still living today. Also clones will work just like normal humans. Dolly gave birth to 4 healthy lambs that live a normal life. This is Dolly.
Argument 3 In a way I am against cloning because even though it works, when it was tested on animals many of them died from infections and complications. Scientists expect the same thing for humans to happen also. Another reason is because the scientists who have performed cloning on animals find it unethical and irresponsible to attempt to clone human organs.
Argument 4 I am also against human organ cloning because if you are cloning a brain and one little thing goes wrong the person that is getting the brain might not know how to walk or talk. Let’s say you are a 20 year old man who needs a new brain because you have brain damage, but during the process of being cloned something goes wrong and your brain does know how to walk. A 20 year old man that can’t walk. Or you need a heart and someone cloned theirs but not all the DNA transferred and you weren’t breathing right and you died within 10 minutes.
Conclusion As you can see we are both for human cloning and against for many reasons. There are ups and downs to human organ cloning. Something could go wrong and you not know how to walk or everything could go perfectly. Dolly is a good example but she is a sheep, will the same thing happen with humans? Or will everything go terribly wrong?
Works Cited http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/about.shtml http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/document.php?id=cqresrre2004102200&type=hitlist&num=0 http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/his135/events/dolly96/Dolly_Module.html http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml#humans Prentice Hall Science Explorer Cells and Heredity. Pearson Prentice Hall, 2002. Print