The official start of the Human Genome Project was in 1990 and the project was supposed to take 15 years and cost $2M per year .
The main criticism of ELSI is the failure to address the conditions raised by population based research, especially with regard to unique processes for group decision making and cultural worldviews. Genetic variation research such as HGP is group population research, but most ethical guidelines.
Some of the projects goals were to identify all the approximately 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA, determine the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA and store this information in databases.
Genetic Disorder Single gene disorders are genetic conditions caused by the alteration or mutation of a specific gene in the affected person’s DNA. Single gene disorders are heritable and often run in families. Chromosome abnormalities usually happen as a result of an error in cell division. Meiosis is the name used to describe the cell division that the egg and sperm go through when they are developing. Normally, meiosis causes a halving of chromosome material, so that each parent gives 23 chromosomes to a pregnancy: Multifactorial traits result from the interaction of one or more environmental factors and two or more genes. In contrast to single gene disorders, multifactorial genes can express continuous variation, that is distribution of phenotypic expression from one extreme to another in a continuous fashion.
Unlike your parents, you may also have the option of being tested. These tests identify the likelihood of passing certain genetic diseases or disorders DNA containing units of heredity that determine the characteristics and functioning of the entire body to your children.
A karyotype is an individual's collection of chromosomes. The term also refers to a laboratory technique that produces an image of an individual's chromosomes. The karyotype is used to look for abnormal numbers or structures of chromosomes.
Cloning in human beings can prove to be a solution to infertility. Cloning has the potential of serving as an option for producing children. Cloning may make it possible to reproduce a certain trait in human beings. We will be able to produce people with certain qualities, human beings with particular desirable traits.
Cloning technologies can prove helpful for the researchers in genetics. They might be able to understand the composition of genes and the effects of genetic constituents on human traits, in a better manner. They will be able to alter genetic constituents in cloned human beings, this simplifying their analysis of genes. Cloning may also help us combat a wide range of genetic diseases.
This will also help are army because they will be very intelligent, possibly faster, stronger and tougher.
If the vital organs of the human body can be cloned, they can serve as backup systems for human beings. Cloning body parts can serve as a lifesaver. When a body organ such as a kidney or heart fails to function, it may be possible to replace it with the cloned body organ.
Cloning can make it possible for us to obtain customized organisms and harness them for health benefits of society. Cloning can serve as the best means to clone animals that can be used for research purposes. If it works we may be using it till the end of time.
As you can see in this chart, more people favor cloning than oppose.
A bad thing about this is that this will cost a lot of money and we are doing very bad economically. This would have cost millions of dollars. We are losing even more money by using missiles in Libya.
People who are against human cloning tell there opinion that creating a human clone would mean taking away the natural process of reproduction. At the same time, one needs to also see the fact that if genes are modified to create smarter human beings by means of cloning, what would happen to the average humans who are not the cloned and smart.
Some people say it would be bad to clone because they think it is against there religious belief to clone instead of reproducing. They think it would be against there Gods rules and laws.
Cloning might be used to create a perfect human, or one with greater strength and is very intelligent. Also, if cloning is perfected in humans, there would be no genetic need for men, and I think that is wrong. We won’t need men because there would be no more need for reproducing.
MacKinnon, Barbara. Human Cloning: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy . Urbana: University of Illinois, 2000. Print.
"Embryo Cloning, Adult DNA Cloning and Therapeutic Cloning." ReligiousTolerance.org by the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance . Web. 26 Mar. 2011. <http://www.religioustolerance.org/cloning.htm>.
"Human Genome Project Information." Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Web. 26 Mar. 2011. <http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis/home.shtml>.
"What Are Genetic Disorders?" Learn.Genetics™ . Web. 26 Mar. 2011. <http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/disorders/whataregd/>.