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Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
Infrastructure resilience
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Infrastructure resilience

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Slides to accompany video on infrastructure resilience.

Slides to accompany video on infrastructure resilience.

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    • 1. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 1 Infrastructure resilience Ian Sommerville
    • 2. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 2 Resilience • Resilience is the ability of assets, networks and systems to anticipate, absorb, adapt to, and recover from a disruptive event or series of events. • Resilience is about maintaining the continuity of a service in the presence of disruptive events
    • 3. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 3
    • 4. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 4 Pandemic disease • Pandemic disease is the highest impact risk because it potentially affects the whole of a national infrastructure as people become ill
    • 5. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 5 Cyber attacks • Cyber attacks that compromise confidentiality are not likely to have a major impact on the availability of a national infrastructure • But cyber attacks that affect the control systems are more serious
    • 6. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 6 Risk impact • Risk impact is related to the extent of the damage to infrastructure assets
    • 7. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 7 Impact depends on locality • Local incidents, such as a terrorist attack on physical infrastructure, have limited impact because they only affect a small part of that infrastructure
    • 8. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 8 Organisational infrastructure • Organisations may be more vulnerable than physical infrastructure • Incidents that affect the organisational infrastructure can have more significant impact – Organisations are less likely to be distributed
    • 9. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 9 Risk impact • Because physical infrastructure is distributed, failures in one part of a physical network are localised – A crack is discovered in one bridge but this does not affect other bridges in the network
    • 10. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 10 Software vulnerability • However, software control changes this – If common elements of an infrastructure are networked and controlled by the same software, a failure in one element (especially a malicious attack) can propagate throughout the network – Large-scale failures and unavailability therefore become possible
    • 11. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 11 Infrastructure dependencies • All infrastructure elements now depend on power and communications • Failure and unavailable of these infrastructures has the most impact Photo: creative commons/flickr/anemoneprojectors
    • 12. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 12 Infrastructure vulnerabilities • Limited physical protectio n
    • 13. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 13 Infrastructure vulnerabilities • Old/insecure software control systems Image: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SCADA_PUMPING_STATION_1.jpg
    • 14. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 14 Infrastructure vulnerabilities • Lack of monitoring systems • Lack of coordination across infrastructure elements
    • 15. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 15 Infrastructure vulnerabilities • Lack of knowledge of infrastructure state or dependencies • Lack of knowledge of infrastructure demand
    • 16. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 16 Achieving resilience
    • 17. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 17 Resistance Provide protection against anticipated events or attacks – Flood defences – Cybersecurity awareness© Adrian Pingstone 2005
    • 18. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 18 Resistance • Based on previous experience and assumptions • Changing world or external circumstances may mean that assumptions are invalid
    • 19. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 19 Reliability • Infrastructure components should be designed to operate under a range of (anticipated) conditions not just ‘normal’ operating conditions
    • 20. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 20 Reliability • Components, as far as possible, should be designed for ‘soft’, incremental rather than catastrophic failure
    • 21. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 21 Digital and analog systems • Digital systems are more brittle than analog systems • Analog systems often fail gradually; computer-based systems often simply crash
    • 22. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 22 Redundancy • The network or system as a whole should be designed so that there are backup installations and spare capacity available.
    • 23. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 23 Redundancy • Examples – Computing support should be provided by different providers in different locations – Diverse generation capacity for electricity – Multiple locations for command and control
    • 24. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 24 Response and recovery • Respond to distruptive events quickly, limiting the damage as far as possible and ensuring public safety
    • 25. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 25 Response and recovery • Plan how to restore services as quickly as possible in the event of a loss of capability • Business continuity planning • Disaster recovery
    • 26. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 26 Achieving resilience • Advance planning to draw up contingency plans to cover anticipated problems • (a) good design of the network and systems to ensure it has the necessary resistance, reliability and redundancy (spare capacity), and • (b) by establishing good organisational resilience to provide the ability, capacity and capability to respond and recover from disruptive events.
    • 27. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 27 Key points • Critical infrastructure resilience is the ability of the infrastructure to continue to deliver essential services during and after a hazardous event • Infrastructure resilience depends on planning for contingencies and effective infrastructure design
    • 28. <Infrastructure resilience, 2013 Slide 28 Key points • Software control of infrastructure systems potentially increases vulnerability because the effects of an event may not be localised • Resilient infrastructure design is based on 4 R’s – resistance, reliability, redundancy, and recovery

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