L17 CS5032 critical infrastructure


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  • Need to think of examples for each of these for the lecture
  • Maybe I need a slide on each of these.
  • L17 CS5032 critical infrastructure

    1. 1. Critical infrastructureCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 1
    2. 2. What is infrastructure • All modern societies and businesses are dependent upon an underlying infrastructure: power, water, waste disposal, the internet, transport networks, financial services, emergency services, hospitals etc. • This infrastructure is shared by all elements of business and societyCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 2
    3. 3. Critical systems of systems • Why is this being covered in a computer science course on critical systems: – Our infrastructure is controlled and managed by a wide range of interacting, computer-based system – Businesses and essential services to citizens are completely dependent on our ‘digital infrastructure’ – Therefore, all of the systems involved in infrastructure management are critical systems • We cannot consider these critical systems in isolation but must also consider their interactions. We are therefore concerned with critical systems of systemsCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 3
    4. 4. Public infrastructure • The national infrastructure comprises networks, systems, sites, facilities and businesses that deliver goods and services to citizens, and support our economy, environment and social well-being. • Includes systems and services such as transport, energy, computing, communications, finance, health care, etc.Critical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 4
    5. 5. Organisational infrastructure • Supply chain and external information systems on which an organisation depends • Digital infrastructure within the organisation (servers, networks, etc.) • Shared business services such as accounting and purchasingCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 5
    6. 6. Infrastructure characteristics Large Scale • Spread over large geographic areas • Regional/National/International – Complex • Many components • Many interdependencies (internal and external) – Reliance on standards • Heterogeneous parts rely on standards for interoperation • Standards are not always uniformly applied across an infrastructure – Long term • Modern and legacy components • Emerges and changes over the long term • We have to live with decisions made a long time agoCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 6
    7. 7. Digital infrastructure • Hardware and software systems and networks on which businesses and society depends – Fibre communication links – Mobile phone and data network – Data centres and servers – ISPs • Now, almost universally, other infrastructure components depend on theCritical infrastructure, 2013 digital infrastructure to deliver Slide 7 their services
    8. 8. Infrastructure ownership • Rarely one single owner and authority • Sub-systems and components are increasingly privatised – The theory is that privately operated infrastructure will be more efficient – However it is difficult to optimise an infrastructure when sections of it are run by self interested parties • Crosses national andCritical infrastructure, 2013 international boundaries Slide 8
    9. 9. Infrastructure funding • Infrastructure replacement is very expensive • We (and governments) are often reluctant to pay for infrastructure • Where monopolies exist they are able to over- charge. • However, competition where operational costs are low can lead to under-Critical infrastructure, 2013 charging (and no re- Slide 9
    10. 10. Critical infrastructure • Assets which are part of the national and organisational infrastructure whose availability is essential to the delivery of infrastructure services and whose unavailability has significant human, social and economic consequences. • Critical infrastructure includes – Structures – Networks – Systems – OrganisationsCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 10
    11. 11. Landline Phones Mobile Telecommunications Production Postal Services ProcessingCommunications Import Broadcast Communications DistributionFood Retail Ambulance Fire and Rescue ElectricityEmergency Services Marine Gas Payment, Clearing Police Oil and SettlementEnergy Fuel Systems Public FinancesFinance Markets and Central Government Exchanges ParliamentGovernment Devolved Administrations Regional and Local AuthoritiesHealth Maritime Health and Social Care AviationTransport Land (Road and rail) Potable water supplyWater Dams Waste Water Critical infrastructure, 2013 Services Slide 11
    12. 12. Critical assets • Not all components of the national infrastructure are critical • Does not just depend on the type of facility but also on the number of people affected or other consequences of unavailability – London Heathrow airport is a critical asset – Dundee Airport is not aCritical infrastructure, 2013 critical asset Slide 12
    13. 13. Infrastructure dependencies • Infrastructure elements are often dependent on each other so that failure of one element may be caused by failure of some other element elsewhere Internet services delivered by an ISP depend on communication services from a telecomms company and power from an electricity companyCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 13
    14. 14. Understanding dependencies • Functional: Reliance between components. • Informational: Data flow from one node aides decision making elsewhere. • Shared Control: Control is from the same system/location • Geospatial: Physical proximity • Purpose: A shared function or purpose • Policy/procedural: A change in policy or procedure at one place may have effects elsewhere. • Societal Interdependency: Changes to one component may have societal effects which lead to changes to othersCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 14
    15. 15. Cascade failure • A failure in one area cascades to another infrastructure sector, causing failures and disruption, sometimes in quite unrelated areas • Failure of flood defences results in an electricity sub- station being flooded • Leads to a loss of power in the local area • An ISP in that area goes offline, leading to a loss of internet service to customers who may be anywhere in the country.Critical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 15
    16. 16. Mutual dependencies • Mutual dependencies cause major problems in the event of failure • Example – Communications systems depend on power – Power recovery depends on communications – Power failure that leads to loss of comms is difficult to recover fromCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 16
    17. 17. Single point of failure • Several services share some facility so that failure at that facility leads to a loss of all of these services. • Examples – Power and communication cableshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/brizo_th in the same duct e_scot/3736542522/ – Transport, communicati on, power use the same bridge to cross a river Critical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 17
    18. 18. Protecting and assuring infrastructure A difficult problem – Infrastructure is rarely under individual control – Infrastructure is large scale • Assurance takes place through governance processes and risk management – Identify key components – Identify vulnerabilities – Identify threats – Construct risk models – Assess possible outcomes from loss – Make/request/lobby for necessary improvements – Make contingency plansCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 18
    19. 19. Infrastructure threatsCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 19
    20. 20. Vulnerabilities • Lack of knowledge of infrastructure state and dependencies • Old, insecure systems used for infrastructure control • Capacity planning based on outdated assumptions • Geographically distributed infrastructure cannot be physically secured • Lack of coordinated infrastructure management • Physical location of some facilities (flood plain)Critical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 20
    21. 21. Infrastructure resilienceCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 21
    22. 22. Resistance • Provide protection against anticipated events or attacks • Based on previous experience and assumptions • Changing world or external circumstances may mean that assumptions are invalidCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 22
    23. 23. Reliability • Infrastructure components should be designed to operate under a range of (anticipated) conditions not just ‘normal’ operating conditions • Components, as far as possible, should be designed for ‘soft’, incremental rather than catastrophic failureCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 23
    24. 24. Redundancy • The network or system as a whole should be designed so that there are backup installations and spare capacity available. • Computing support should be provided by different providers in different locationsCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 24
    25. 25. Response and recovery • Respond to distruptive events quickly, limiting the damage as far as possible and ensuring public safety • Plan how to restore services as quickly as possible in the event of a loss of capabilityCritical infrastructure, 2013 Slide 25
    26. 26. Key points • Infrastructure is critical to business, security, health, society.• We are increasingly reliant on digital infrastructure. • Infrastructure is large scale, complex, has modern and legacy components, and many interdependencies. • Securing infrastructure is a hard problem• Hard to know what you have• Hard to assess vulnerabilities• Difficult to make improvements because infrastructure is Critical infrastructure, 2013 rarely under direct control of those it is critical to Slide 26