CS5032 L20 cybersecurity 2


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  • Mystery why some organisations limit length of passwords and do not allow characters apart from letters and numbersSay you live at 15 south street so make up a password you can remember:SO51street Cracked in < 1 daySO_51_street Cracked in 23 years
  • CS5032 L20 cybersecurity 2

    1. 1. Cybersecurity 2 Making our systems more secure Prof. Ian SommervilleCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 1
    2. 2. Technological approaches • Computer security/Security engineering focuses on the technical aspects of the problem • By reducing vulnerabilities in code and by adding more checks to code, many security incidents can be avoided – However, this can significantly increase costs and time required for development • Necessary but not enough for cybersecurity achievement • Cybersecurity is a socio-technical rather than a technical problemCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 2
    3. 3. • “If you think technology can solve your security problems, then you dont understand the problems and you dont understand the technology.” • "Security is a chain; its only as secure as the weakest link."Cybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 3
    4. 4. Why technology is not enough • Technology reliability cannot be guaranteed • Insider attacks • Technical security compromises made for usability reasons • Failure of organisational procedures or poorly designed procedures • Human carelessness • Social engineeringCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 4
    5. 5. Unreliable technology • In the same way that it is practically impossible to guarantee that a complex system is free from bugs, it is also impossible to guarantee that a system is free from security vulnerabilities • Even if a system A is „secure‟, it may rely on other systems that are potentially insecure. If these are owned by different people, „system wide‟ security validation is impossibleCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 5
    6. 6. Insider attacks • Insiders have legitimate credentials that allows them access to the system – Therefore, strong access control technology is not a barrier • Insiders in an organisation are aware of the technical safeguards built into the system and may know how to circumvent these – especially if they have privileged system access • Insiders have local knowledge that may be used for social engineering and so may be able to discover privileged information.Cybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 6
    7. 7. Usability vs security • There is always a trade-off to be made between usability and security • Security procedures slow down system operation and may alienate users • Companies may therefore make a deliberate decision to use weaker security procedures so that users don‟t decide to go elsewhere – Login/password authentication instead of biometrics – Unencrypted information as encryption slows down theCybersecurity 2, 2013 system Slide 7
    8. 8. Procedural failures • Procedures that are intended to maintain security may be badly designed or implemented • This may introduce vulnerabilities into the system or may mean that users have to circumvent procedures – thus introducing new vulnerabilities – Example • Companies request strong passwords but do not provide any help to users how to construct strong easy to remember passwords such as “My_hamster.spot” • Requirements for regular password change. Thought to improve security but actually means that users can‟t remember passwords so they write them downCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 8
    9. 9. Human carelessness • People will inevitably be careless – Leave systems unattended whilst they are logged on – Use authentication in public places where they can be observed – Lose keys – Etc. • Some technical controls against carelessness but impossible to completely control this vulnerability without incurring very high costsCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 9
    10. 10. Social engineering • Attacker Alex calls system admin Bob pretending to be the manager of a company and asks for his password to be reset and for Bob to tell him the new password • Bob wants to please his boss so does as he is asked – Alex then can gain access to the system (and lock out the legitimate manager) • Many examples that show users are willing to provide confidential information to a plausible requestorCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 10
    11. 11. Multiple points of failure • These „social‟ vulnerabilities may be exploited in connection with each other or with technical vulnerabilities to gain access to system • For example, a successful password attack may require: – Social engineering to convince system administators to reset a user‟s password – A poor password change procedure, which does not include a check to ensure that the requestor is legitimate • Require text confirmation of password change request or text password change details to users mobile • Requests made by phone should require callback to registeredCybersecurity 2, 2013number Slide 11
    12. 12. Improving cybersecurity • Deterrence – Increase the costs of making an attack on your systems • Awareness – Improve awareness of all system users of security risks and types of attack • Procedures – Design realistic security procedures that can be followed by everyone in an organisation (including the boss) • Monitoring and logging – Monitor and log all system operationsCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 12
    13. 13. Deterrence • It is impossible to develop a completely secure personal, business and government system. If an attacker has unlimited resources and motivation, it will always be possible to invoke some attacks on a given system. • However, attackers NEVER have unlimited resources and motivation so, aim of security is to increase the costs of making a successful attack to such an extent that attackers will (a) be deterred from attacking and (b) will abandon attempted attacks before they are successfulCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 13
    14. 14. Deterrence mechanisms • Diverse authentication systems – Use strong passwords and multiple forms of authentication • Firewalls – Limit access to your systems through „safe‟ ports • Encryption – Use https protocols for internet traffic – Encrypt confidentialCybersecurity 2, 2013 information to increase the 14 Slide
    15. 15. Password security • Password strength measurement – https://passfault.appspot.com/pas sword_strength.html#menu • Password is „hamster‟ – 27,000 possibilities. Cracked in < 1 hour • Password is „My_hamster‟ – 9 billion possibilities. Cracked in < 1 day • Password is „My_hamster.spot‟ – 152 trillion possibilities. Cracked in >15 yearsCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 15
    16. 16. Encryption • Encryption is the process of encoding information in such a way that it is not directly readable. A key is required to decrypt the information and understand it • Used sensibly, encryption can contribute to cybersecurity improvement but is not an answer in itself – Security of encryption keys – Inconvenience of encryption leads to patchy utilisation and user frustration – Risk of key loss or corruption – information is completely lost (and backups don‟t help) – Can make recovery more difficultCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 16
    17. 17. Awareness • Educate users into the importance of cyber security and provide information that supports their secure use of computer systems • Be open about incidents that may have occurred • Take into account how people really are rather than how you might like them to be • Bad information – Use a different password for every website you visit • Good information – If you use the same password for everything, an attacker can get access to your accounts if they find that out – Use a different passwords for all online bank accounts and only reuse passwords when you don‟t really care about the accountsCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 17
    18. 18. Procedures • Design appropriate procedures based around the value of the assets that are being protected • If information is not confidential, make it public as this reduces the need for users to authenticate to access the information • Cybersecurity awareness procedures for all staff • Recognise reality – people will use phones and tablets and derive procedures for their safe useCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 18
    19. 19. Monitoring and logging • Monitoring and logging means that you keep track of all access to the system • Use tools to scan log frequently looking for anomalies • Can be an important deterrent to insider attacks if attackers know that they have a chance of being discovered through the logging systemCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 19
    20. 20. Protection levels • Personal protection – What should individuals do? • Organisational protection – What should organisations do? • National protection – What should government do? • International legal frameworks and agreements – What should governments do?Cybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 20
    21. 21. Personal protection • Protection of information and devices belonging to individuals • Security awareness and attention – This can happen to you – Don‟t make security mistakes e.g. clicking on unknown email links • Secure defaults – Require password to log in to PC/ PIN for phone • Regular checks – Scans for malware – Information integrityCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 21
    22. 22. Organisational protection• Senior management commitment to cyber security• Audits of existing systems and procedures for security weaknesses – Actions to strengthen systems where vulnerabilities are discovered• Creation of „sensible‟ security procedures that do not stop people doing their job – Support use of personal phones/tablets but raise awareness of the dangers to confidentiality – Backup and recovery strategies• Creation of a „cybersecurity response team‟ to handle security incidentsCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 22
    23. 23. National protection• National protection should be concerned with protecting the critical physical, digital and organisational infrastructure – Infrastructure is managed and delivered by a wide range of private and public „owners‟ – Role of government is to ensure cooperation between them• Provision of information and advice to business and public sector – Backed up by resources for public sector bodies• Legislation and regulation to ensure that organisations involved in CNI have appropriate security in placeCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 23
    24. 24. International agreements • Cybersecurity is an international rather than simply a national problem • Attackers may be based anywhere in the world • Danger of reciprocal attacks and escalation if attackers are government sponsored • Need for consistent international laws (and penalities) so that attackers cannot hide behind national boundaries • International reporting and response systemsCybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 24
    25. 25. Key points • Technology is important but it cannot, on its own, solve the cybersecurity problem • Deterrence is a critically important strategy. Make it too expensive for attackers to breach your security • Organisations cannot fall back on unrealistic security procedures then blame individuals when they go wrong • Regulation and legislation is required to ensure cybersecurity in CNI providers • Cybersecurity is an international problem – so international action is required.Cybersecurity 2, 2013 Slide 25