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AP World History Lesson 5 PBA
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AP World History Lesson 5 PBA AP World History Lesson 5 PBA Presentation Transcript

  • Rise and Accomplishments of Classical China
    Lesson 5 PBA – Christopher Yuan
  • Government and Control
    The Dynasty System
    Each family of kings creates a dynasty – within dynasties are several Emperors
    Dynasty rules until it is brought down by another Dynasty
    Dynasties can last for centuries, or for as little as 19 years in the case of the Qin Dynasty
    The Zhou
    Zhou Dynasty lasted from 1029 to 258 BCE
    Did not establish a strong central government – instead relied on relationships with regional princes and aristocratic families
    Though central government was weak, the Zhou dynasty heightened the focus on the central government by claiming that they had direct links to the previous rulers (the Shang), and that the Mandate of Heaven had given the Zhou the right to rule China. The Mandate of Heaven was an important political justification for Imperial rule from this point forward.
  • Government and Control, Cont.
    The economy flourished and there was much stability until around 700 BCE
    Took the Yangtze river valley, forming the Middle Kingdom
    The Qin
    Created in 221BCE as the Zhou dynasty disintegrated
    Qin Shi Huangdi deposed the last Zhou emperor and declared himself the sole ruler of China
    Incredibly harsh ruler
    “The heart of a tiger and a wolf”
    Realized the weaknesses of the Zhou empire and so formed a strong central government, ordering nobles to leave their regions and appear at his court
    Expanded China south towards modern-day Hong Kong
    Ordered the construction of the Great Wall of China, a wall built using forced labor. The wall spanned 3000+ miles and was wide enough for chariots to ride on its crest
    The Qin’s attack on intellectuals made its reign quite short lived.
    The Qin dynasty ended in 202 BCE
  • Government and Control, Cont..
    The Han
    Last dynasty of Classical China
    Ruled from 202 BCE to 220 CE – quite a long reign
    Rounded out China’s political and intellectual structure
    Sought to reduce the “brutal repression” of the Qin dynasty
    Expanded Chinese territory into Korea, Indochina, and Central Asia
    Enforced peace throughout Asia
    Government emphasized Confucian philosophy
    Expanded the powers of the bureaucracy
  • This map shows a representation of the Han Dynasty’s total land. With such a large land area, the central government needed to be very strong and employ a strong bureaucracy in order to make everything work.
  • Confucianism
    Confucius lived from 551 to 478 BCE, during the Zhou Dynasty
    Life was devoted to teaching
    Not a religious leader – believed in a divine order but refused to speculate about it
    Taught that if people could be taught personal virtue, than a solid political life would result
    Confucius believed that leaders should have:
    Moderate behavior
    Veneration of custom and ritual
    Love of wisdom
    Believed that subordinates, or people in lower positions, should have obedience and respect to those above them socially. However, he believed that rank should not be based on birth but on intelligence and education
  • Daoism
    More religious than Confucianism
    “Dao” means “The path”, or “The way of nature”
    Furthered by Laozi, who lived during the 5th century BCE
    Daoist harmony with nature is claimed through humility and frugal living
    Many secret rituals
    Believed in magic and mysteries
    Usually people did not believe 100% in Confucianism or Daoism, but instead combined the two into a hybrid
  • Confucius promoted social standards, including obedience to one’s superiors and modesty.
    Laozi, pictured right, advanced Daoism very far. He taught harmony with nature and “the way of nature”
  • Invention and Accomplishments
    Zhou Dynasty
    Promoted linguistic unity; developed a single spoken language of Mandarin Chinese
    Confucius lived during this period, starting Confucianism
    Qin Dynasty
    Built the Great Wall of China
    Formed great central government
    Ordered the first national census
    Standardized coinage, weights, and measurements
    Made the written language uniform, ensuring that all people that were educated were writing one language
    Han Dynasty
    Created a very large bureaucracy (130,000!)
    Established exams for bureaucrats – first example of civil service tests
    Slight checks on upper-class rule
    Research in astronomy and maintaining historical records
    Public works including complex irrigation and canal systems
    Regulated agricultural supplies to control price
  • The Great Wall is arguably the Qin Dynasty’s single greatest achievement. To this date, it is the largest object created by man.
    To This Date…
    Mandarin Chinese, a written system standardized in the Zhou Dynasty, is China’s official language to this date.
  • Contributions
    Mandarin Chinese, both spoken and written, were standardized in Classical China. This language is still spoken today
    First national census was conducted during the Qin Dynasty
    First central government formed during this period
    First bureaucracy formed during the classical period
    The first civil examination for bureaucrats was created during this period – barring people of low intelligence from controlling the country
    The first small system of checks and balances was instituted during the Classical period. There were a small number of peasants that got to join the bureaucracy – ensuring that the government was not controlled only by aristocrats
  • Cited Works
    Stearns, Peter N. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. 4th ed. Pearson Education, 2006. 35-49. Print.
    "Zhou Dynasty." ThinkQuest. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2011. <http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/zhou.html>.
    "Qin." ThinkQuest. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2011. <http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/qin.html>.