AP World History Lesson 5 PBA


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AP World History Lesson 5 PBA

  1. 1. Rise and Accomplishments of Classical China<br />Lesson 5 PBA – Christopher Yuan<br />
  2. 2. Government and Control<br />The Dynasty System<br />Each family of kings creates a dynasty – within dynasties are several Emperors<br />Dynasty rules until it is brought down by another Dynasty<br />Dynasties can last for centuries, or for as little as 19 years in the case of the Qin Dynasty<br />The Zhou<br />Zhou Dynasty lasted from 1029 to 258 BCE<br />Did not establish a strong central government – instead relied on relationships with regional princes and aristocratic families<br />Though central government was weak, the Zhou dynasty heightened the focus on the central government by claiming that they had direct links to the previous rulers (the Shang), and that the Mandate of Heaven had given the Zhou the right to rule China. The Mandate of Heaven was an important political justification for Imperial rule from this point forward.<br />
  3. 3. Government and Control, Cont.<br />The economy flourished and there was much stability until around 700 BCE<br />Took the Yangtze river valley, forming the Middle Kingdom<br />The Qin<br />Created in 221BCE as the Zhou dynasty disintegrated<br />Qin Shi Huangdi deposed the last Zhou emperor and declared himself the sole ruler of China<br />Incredibly harsh ruler<br />“The heart of a tiger and a wolf”<br />Realized the weaknesses of the Zhou empire and so formed a strong central government, ordering nobles to leave their regions and appear at his court<br />Expanded China south towards modern-day Hong Kong<br />Ordered the construction of the Great Wall of China, a wall built using forced labor. The wall spanned 3000+ miles and was wide enough for chariots to ride on its crest<br />The Qin’s attack on intellectuals made its reign quite short lived. <br />The Qin dynasty ended in 202 BCE<br />
  4. 4. Government and Control, Cont..<br />The Han<br />Last dynasty of Classical China<br />Ruled from 202 BCE to 220 CE – quite a long reign<br />Rounded out China’s political and intellectual structure<br />Sought to reduce the “brutal repression” of the Qin dynasty<br />Expanded Chinese territory into Korea, Indochina, and Central Asia<br />Enforced peace throughout Asia<br />Government emphasized Confucian philosophy<br />Expanded the powers of the bureaucracy<br />
  5. 5. This map shows a representation of the Han Dynasty’s total land. With such a large land area, the central government needed to be very strong and employ a strong bureaucracy in order to make everything work.<br />
  6. 6. Confucianism<br />Confucianism<br />Confucius lived from 551 to 478 BCE, during the Zhou Dynasty<br />Life was devoted to teaching<br />Not a religious leader – believed in a divine order but refused to speculate about it<br />Taught that if people could be taught personal virtue, than a solid political life would result<br />Confucius believed that leaders should have:<br />Moderate behavior<br />Veneration of custom and ritual<br />Love of wisdom<br />Believed that subordinates, or people in lower positions, should have obedience and respect to those above them socially. However, he believed that rank should not be based on birth but on intelligence and education<br />
  7. 7. Daoism<br />Daoism<br />More religious than Confucianism<br />“Dao” means “The path”, or “The way of nature”<br />Furthered by Laozi, who lived during the 5th century BCE<br />Daoist harmony with nature is claimed through humility and frugal living<br />Many secret rituals<br />Believed in magic and mysteries<br />Usually people did not believe 100% in Confucianism or Daoism, but instead combined the two into a hybrid<br />
  8. 8. Confucius promoted social standards, including obedience to one’s superiors and modesty.<br />Laozi, pictured right, advanced Daoism very far. He taught harmony with nature and “the way of nature”<br />
  9. 9. Invention and Accomplishments<br />Zhou Dynasty<br />Promoted linguistic unity; developed a single spoken language of Mandarin Chinese<br />Confucius lived during this period, starting Confucianism<br />Qin Dynasty<br />Built the Great Wall of China<br />Formed great central government<br />Ordered the first national census<br />Standardized coinage, weights, and measurements<br />Made the written language uniform, ensuring that all people that were educated were writing one language<br />Han Dynasty<br />Created a very large bureaucracy (130,000!)<br />Established exams for bureaucrats – first example of civil service tests<br />Slight checks on upper-class rule<br />Research in astronomy and maintaining historical records<br />Public works including complex irrigation and canal systems<br />Regulated agricultural supplies to control price<br />
  10. 10. The Great Wall is arguably the Qin Dynasty’s single greatest achievement. To this date, it is the largest object created by man.<br />To This Date…<br />Mandarin Chinese, a written system standardized in the Zhou Dynasty, is China’s official language to this date.<br />
  11. 11. Contributions<br />Mandarin Chinese, both spoken and written, were standardized in Classical China. This language is still spoken today<br />First national census was conducted during the Qin Dynasty<br />First central government formed during this period<br />First bureaucracy formed during the classical period<br />The first civil examination for bureaucrats was created during this period – barring people of low intelligence from controlling the country<br />The first small system of checks and balances was instituted during the Classical period. There were a small number of peasants that got to join the bureaucracy – ensuring that the government was not controlled only by aristocrats<br />
  12. 12. Cited Works<br />Stearns, Peter N. World Civilizations: The Global Experience. 4th ed. Pearson Education, 2006. 35-49. Print.<br />"Zhou Dynasty." ThinkQuest. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2011. <http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/zhou.html>.<br />"Qin." ThinkQuest. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sep 2011. <http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/qin.html>.<br />