Social Media andCitizen Security inMexicoKristen Blandford, Rosemary DAmour,Kathleen Leasor, Allison Terry,Isadora Vigier de Latour SoMe enVivo @some_envivo
A changing security environment...• How are social media platforms being used in response to security needs?• Hypothesis: Civil society, media workers, and government are adapting security reporting to social media platforms because they meet needs of post-2006 security environment
Methodology• Public Sphere and Knowledge Dynamics Model• Network Analysis• Twitter Analytics• Content Analysis• Case Studies
Public Sphere• Political/Rhetorical Speech• Political Outcomes/Raised Awareness• New?
Knowledge Dynamics• Knowledge Conversion• Knowledge Transfer• Information vs Knowledge Image from Naoka 1994
Methodological Tools• Structure and Content• Networks: Nodes, Information Flows, Top Users• Analytics: Tweet Volume, Tweets:Retweets• Content: Coding for Keywords, Top Words
Movimiento por la Paz• Statistics• MPJD - most popular social movement, why?• Characteristics of a leader, Javier Sicilia• Moving north - peace caravan MarchaZocaloDF8mayo Pictures obtained from image gallery of Movimiento por la Paz website: http://mxlapazmx.views.fm/Galeria
MPJD in the Public SphereFindings• Rhetorical Public Sphere• Online and offline action by MPJD: increase attention and awareness• Twitter more popular. Use of #hastlamadre• 2-way communication• Affiliation with U.S NGO via Social Media• Judgement formed to and from the movement
Statistical DataTwitter Handle Hashtags No. of No. of tweets Facebook followers likes@mxlapazmx #MPJD, 6147 5655 4964 #justiciaparanuevoleon #enloszapatosdelotro #dondeestan #Sicilia #CaravanaUSA Twitter and Facebook Statistics for MPJD as of 04.26.2012 *Very rapid increase in no. of followers for MPJD
Twitter Analytics Figure 1. Image from The Archivist @mxlapazmx
Blog del NarcoTwitter Handle Hashtags No. of Following Tweets vs. followers Retweets@infonarco #verfollow 104,869 0 Tweets: 40.26% #mtyfollow #reyonsafollow Retweets:59.74% #elblogdelnarcoFigure 1 • Analysis: Not following anyone so they can stay anonymous • Re-tweets only from followers, not the account
Blog del Narco• Network Analysis- EventsFigure 3
Blog del Narco o March 28, 2012: Z40 quarters 5 men as an assault on el Chapo Guzman in Sinaloa o April 18, 2012: This is when there was the largest amount of activity on the @InfoNarco Twitter account. On this day, Joaquin Guzman Loera, aka El Chapo Guzman leader of los Zetas, claimed responsibility for dismembering 14 Z40 members in Nuevo Laredo.
Blog del NarcoFindings• Credible, reliable, and alternative solution to government and traditional media• Mexicans use this blog as new public sphere to report public safety concerns- two-way flow of information o Keeping anonymous and timeliness=crucial• Altering who gatekeeper of narco-related security information is onto civil society
The New Journalism• Changing media environment o Adapting to immediacy of information flow• Comparison between media (@periodistasapie) and other users online o NodeXL to compare information flow of hashtags, individual users, and media on Twitter.
The New JournalismImage: CSO @CIC within Image: Individual user, #mtyfollow @erikam within #mtyfollow
The New Journalism Image: @periodistasapie• Three-step process by which users in the network receive information. a. News organizations disseminate information b. Conversation with users and followers c. Users spread to their followers
The New JournalismImage: First stageof connectivity in@periodistasapienetwork.
The New JournalismImage: Second stage in @periodistasapie.
The New JournalismImage: Third stage in @periodistasapie.
The New Journalism• News organizations carrying an established offline identity into the online realm. o Connectivity trumps individual users.• Role of media to report issues of public importance--but Mexicos security context has changed that. o Anonymity in or omission of reporting.
The New Journalism@periodistasapie top users, most of whom are individual users or organizations who are interested in the journalists’ network.
The New Journalism@periodistasapie: Tweets vs. Retweets means within the network, the majority of content is not original, but that it reaches far into the network.
The New Journalism• #reynosafollow contains more original content.
The New Journalism@periodistasapie tweets: Spikes in the graph indicate that more information or users are following the source.
Media Findings• Journalists are unable or unwilling to use offline identity to their advantage in reporting on social media.• Rather than reporting on violence, journalists and media institutions are reporting on ways to enable them to report on violence and citizen security.• Social media provides organizational network power, and can be an enabling tool to combat the decentralized nature of the drug war.
Government and Social MediaPolicy• Phases • December 2006-August 2011 • August 2011-present• Leveraging social media networks as security strategy - untapped• Access to information and protecting messengers• Changes in dissemination, not conversation
@SSP_mx Network Sample (N=100) @ssp_mx following: 44 followers: 41,199 Created with NodeXL
Tweets:Retweets @SSP_mx95% ofcontent isunoriginal Image from the Archivist
Original Content• BuscandoaAlex• USB-gate• The odd complaint, denunciation, praise, or opinion
Secretaría de Seguridad Pública• Federal Police - security updates• Low volume of tweets from SSP• Decentralized network• Limited control over information flows• Contribute significantly to content
Outputs @SSP_mx• Information dissemination• Raise awareness• Limited discourse• Weak rhetorical public sphere Image from NoticiasenLínea
Overall Findings• Potential democratizing force in citizen security context enables communication between governors, media, civil society and individuals.• Changing "gatekeepers" of information.• Two challenges to social media and citizen security: o Connectivity, virtual digital divide o Decentralized security context
Implications for Further Research• How to connect excluded populations? Especially those in rural areas where the majority of the drug violence is occurring.• How can these three sectors coordinate the exchange of information in social media networks?
Thank you for your attention!Questions?Contact:firstname.lastname@example.org@some_envivo