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Learning and e learning

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Introduction and perspectives into e-learning... Cognitive perspective, situative perspective, constructionist and associationist ......

Introduction and perspectives into e-learning... Cognitive perspective, situative perspective, constructionist and associationist ......

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  • 1.  Learning is the acquisition of knowledge or skills through experience, practice, or study, or by being taught. E-learning is Internet-enabled learning http://www.cisco.com
  • 2. TheoryConstructive AlignmentConstructivist Theory
  • 3. Presentation on Learning Theory andPedagogical Design in e-Learning Theory. Prepared by: Azada Maqsoodi 08 February, 2013
  • 4. Learning Theory and Pedagogical Design1. The Associationist Perspective2. The Cognitive Perspective3. The Situative Perspective
  • 5. Learning Theory and Pedagogical Design Certain Traditions in Educational theory derived from different Ideas Theory as set of compatible explanation Competing Ideas for the same Phe Theory Theory Theory Theory Phenomena Phenomena Phenomena Phenomena
  • 6. Learning Theory and Pedagogical DesignThe approach of Greeno et al. (1996) which identified 3 Clusters or Broad Perspectives;1. The Associationist Perspective2. The Cognitive Perspective3. The Situative Perspective
  • 7. The Associationist Perspective The associationist approach models learning as the gradual building of patterns of associations and skill components. The learning happened through connecting elementary mental and behavoural units by different activities/feedback. Associationist theory requires subject matter to be analyzed (developed by Gagne “1985”) Analyzed; 1. Discriminations 2. Classification 3. Response sequences SeparatingLearning tasks are arranged based on their complexity as per the task analysis, with simpler components as prerequisites. Showing connecting
  • 8. The Associationist Perspective The Associationist Theory Neural Network Theory (Hinton 1992) It models knowledge states as patterns of activation in a network of elementary units. This approach is not applied to educational issues, although it is very significant. It suggests as analysis of knowledge, rather than in term of task components Connecting Basic Ideas
  • 9. The Associationist Perspective Neural Network Theory (Hinton 1992) Instructional Systems Design (ISD)• Complex tasks is built step by step from simpler units of knowledge or skill, finally adding coordination.• Successful instruction depends on placing constraints on the amount of new structure that must be added at any one stage (Gagne)ISD consists of several steps;1. Analyze the domain into a hierarchy of small units.2. Sequence the units so that a combination of units is not taught until its component units are grasped individually.3. Design an instructional approach for each unit in the sequence.
  • 10. The Associationist Perspective Complex TaskA B C D E Organize ] Hard Task Hierarchy Middle Task Task Complex = Task Easiest Task Task
  • 11. The Associationist Perspective Analysis of complex tasks into Gagne’s learning hierarchy involves the assumption that knowledge and skill need to be taught from the bottom up. Up Learning Learning Learning Bottom
  • 12. The Associationist Perspective Most of people believe the e-learning is individualized instructions for each students which means Student Centered Learning rather than Teacher Centered Learning. That is why the e-learning is widely discredited. There are different ideas regarding this.
  • 13. The Associationist Perspective The main concept of this paragraph talks about the bellow points; Associationist Theory Neural Network Theory Behaviorism Instructional System Design Constructivist Theory e-Learning
  • 14. Thanks a lot from your closeattention to my presentation.
  • 15. Presentation on Learning Theory andPedagogical Design in e-Learning Theory. Prepared by: Azada Maqsoodi 08 February, 2013
  • 16. Learning Theory and Pedagogical Design1. The Associationist Perspective2. The Cognitive Perspective3. The Situative Perspective
  • 17. Learning Theory and Pedagogical Design Certain Traditions in Educational theory derived from different IdeasTheory as set of compatible explanation Competing Ideas for the same Phenomena Theory Theory Theory Theory Phenomena Phenomena Phenomena Phenomena
  • 18. Learning Theory and Pedagogical DesignThe approach of Greeno et al. (1996) which identified 3 Clusters or Broad Perspectives;1. The Associationist Perspective2. The Cognitive Perspective3. The Situative Perspective
  • 19. The Associationist Perspective The associationist approach models learning as the gradual building of patterns of associations and skill components. The learning happened through connecting elementary mental and behavoural units by different activities/feedback. Associationist theory requires subject matter to be analyzed (developed by Gagne “1985”) Analyzed; 1. Discriminations 2. Classification 3. Response sequences SeparatingLearning tasks are arranged based on their complexity as per the task analysis, with simpler components as prerequisites. Showing connecting
  • 20. The Associationist Perspective The Associationist Theory Neural Network Theory (Hinton 1992) It models knowledge states as patterns of activation in a network of elementary units. This approach is not applied to educational issues, although it is very significant. It suggests as analysis of knowledge, rather than in term of task components Connecting Basic Ideas
  • 21. The Associationist Perspective The Associationist TheoryNeural Network Theory (Hinton 1992)
  • 22. Thanks a lot from your closeattention to my presentation.
  • 23. Cognitive Perspective  Perception, thinking, languagGENERAL e & reasoning became seen as output of individual’sSHIFT IN attention, memory & concept formation processes.1960S  Gave rise to new approaches to pedagogy.
  • 24. Sub-area of cognitive researchHighlighted as  Knowledge acquisition wasparticularly viewed as the outcome of an interaction between newinfluential experiences & the structurese.gschema for understanding that havetherapy, infor been already taken.mationprocessing etc.,
  • 25. PIAGET’SASSUMTION  Vygotsky’s emphasis (1978)  Duffy & Cunningham (1996)
  • 26. BUILDING EXPERTISEActivities of constructing:1. Interaction with material systems & concepts in the domain.2. Interactions in which learners discuss their developing, understanding with competence.
  • 27. SITUATIVE PERSPECTIVE Subjected to social & cultural influences Shifts onto patterns of successful practice.
  • 28. Barab & Duffy (2000) distinguishes asSocio-psychological viewConcept of a community of practice
  • 29. Lave & Wenger (1991) It is not just the meaning  CMC – Computer to be attached to an Meditated activity….. Communication. ………. Relationship to the community itself
  • 30. Social -anthropologicalSituatednessrelationship
  • 31. Overt activityInclude Blended Element
  • 32. Focus on different perspective Learning as iterativeProceeds from Novice to Expert Pedagogy based
  • 33. Three perspectives as cycle
  • 34. Application of the New Learning Current landscape e-learning another kind of model suggest itself Start with social – motivation- community and peers-situative perspective Gradually, personal ownership of the learning activities become necessary for the derivation of meaning and construction of understanding
  • 35. The TESEP Project Scottish e-learning transformation project Effective –learning through application of a pedagogy Raising awareness and skill level in internet- based learning