Grid-Interactive Systems “A matter of energy storage” Dr. Jeffery Lee Johnson CTO Todo-Solar Coahuila, MéxicoEmail: email@example.com Tele: (+52) 871 722 9522 www.todo-solar.com.mx
Agenda• Seasoned Sentiments• What is a Grid Interactive system? – Best explained by what it is not – Definition of a true grid-interactive PV System• Examples of Grid Interactive systems• Why are Grid Interactive systems of interest to installers?• Seeing the Bigger picture – Centralized versus Distributed Systems• Addressing the larger questions – Why grid interactive systems ? – What will be the evolving role of Energy Storage for next generation PV system• Summary and questions
Doc Solstice’s Seasoned SentimentsLet’s examine the limit in which by some miracletomorrow morning we had access to an unlimitedsource of free clean energy.Would this be a sustainable scenario?
Doc Solstice’s Seasoned SentimentsLet’s examine the limit in which by some miracletomorrow morning we had access to an unlimitedsource of free clean energy.Would this be a sustainable scenario?No! This would not be a sustainable scenario !Sustainability represents far more than just oursource of energy. It includes: Energy delivery and storage systems Intelligent and efficient use of energy Smart Grids Impact of energy use on other resources Global and local economics
Most familiar types of modern PV systems are Off-Grid and Grid-connected#SolarMOOC webinar by Kenny Grigar on Off-Grid Systems Introduction to the #SolarMOOC Academy & many other http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=65yV7rPRreA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=76UZnghX9Dg Wholly Grid independent Wholly Grid Dependent Used where Grid is limited or non-existent Used where Grid is reliable Market is mostly developing economies Fastest growing PV Market Enabling Event is affordable storage Enabling Event is net metering
Grid Connected with Battery Backup (GCBB) is a Hybrid System IN SOME CASES, THESE ARE TWO SEPARATE INVERTERS
The key issues for GCBB are Cost and Operational mode• These systems require more components and storage which elevates cost• Sometimes referred to as “Grid Interactive”, but it is not as what is meant here• Energy is stored for “later use” but not necessarily as needed – Backup kicks in when grid is down – Usually backups specific AC circuits or DC loads• Requires more sophisticated design rules and additional installation
What is a true Grid Interactive PV System ?• Similar to GCBB systems but more formally it is defined as “Grid Connected System with Intelligent Energy Storage”• Hybrid of Intelligent Storage and integrated Inverter – Applies stored energy as needed or upon demand (such as at night, cloudy days etc.) independent of Grid status – Uses various energy storage devices such as improved Lithium Ion Batteries or Fuel cells – Optimizes private consumption for a “consumer-controlled net metering scheme” – Affordable technology is just now emerging (June 2012) – Adds flexibility to PV systems design with respect to production – With flexibility come complexity !
The Emergence of Intelligent Storage http://www.schottsolar.com/global/news/top-news/article/schott-storeitTM-2/SCHOTT STOREIT™ High-performance battery pack of lithium-ion cells, a PV inverter, a battery inverter and an energy management system. Easily connects with the existing house network with need to connect individual components. Energy management system controls how much of the electricity generated by the PV system is actually used for private consumption, stored inside the battery or fed into the Grid SCHOTT will unveil its The battery basically serves as an electricity storage concept, the SCHOTT STOREIT, at the intermediate storage device for the PV electricity Intersolar EuropeTrade Show generated during the day, which the system in Munich, June 13th-15th, owner can then used at a time when needed. 2012.
Schematic of a Grid Interactive system Power Generation Meter Monitor PV Production Bidirectional Meter Random Grid consumption or Load
Fronius Energy Cell http://www.fronius.com/cps/rde/xchg/SID-05807842-8029BBDE/fronius_usa/hs.xsl/2714_1586.htmThe core of this concept is ahybrid fuel cell with integratedinverter electronics
The Basics of Fuel Cell• Hydrogen is separated from water using “hydrolysis” – Solar Energy is converted into electrochemical energy• Hydrogen is passed through a catalyst membrane that strips off the electron• Negative cathode is charged, positive protons are attracted to positive cathode creating a “battery”• To discharge, electrons are reunited with the hydrogen protons.• Hydrogen atoms are passively recombined with O2 with a byproduct of water
Why are Grid Interactive Systems important to installers ?• Sooner or later, installers will have to deal with the design and installation• Procedures and Processes will evolve with technology, especially energy storage• Energy storage is already on the renewable energy roadmap – High priority now for Utility Scale projects – Future Smart Grid architecture calls for energy storage at all levels including residential – Prices for main components have dropped to where energy storage costs are “well above radar” and are being addressedHey, the Germans are once again taking the lead and doing it, I tend to trust the German Solar industry
Utility Scale Solar does not address issues related to centralization: Storage and Distribution Traditional Central Plant Solar PV Central PlantEnergy isstored in Fuel ? Oversized Distribution Grid = Energy loss (8.5% and rising)
Advantages of Distributed Systems • Distributed systems are a network of individual “mini-plants” using renewable energy -- homes, businesses, small solar farms, community solar parks etc • Energy is created near or at point of consumption (true even with net metering) • Generally takes advantages of dual purpose land – Big Box Rooftops, residential, revitalized land (such as landfills), schools etc • Still depends on Grid network and hence, ENERGY STORAGE
From the Macro to the Micro: Smart Distributed Systems (Residential)Many technologies must and will merge to form the ideal integrated system
The future will depend on smart storage and intelligentdistribution at both Centralized and Distributed levels
Summary• Solar Energy is in its infancy• The renewable energy roadmap is being drawn out to 2020, 2030, 2050 and beyond• To replace existing needs and provide future needs, We need to get smart about energy storage, energy distribution, energy use and all natural resources including land "We cant solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.“ A. Einstein
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