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W hat you need to know about aids
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W hat you need to know about aids

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  • 1. HIV-AIDS overview know it now
  • 2. Is HIV and AIDS the same thing?
  • 3. HIV
    • “ Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome”
    • A specific type of virus (a retrovirus)
    • HIV invades the helper T cells to replicate itself.
    • No Cure
  • 4. AIDS
    • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
    • HIV is the virus that causes AIDS
    • Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection
    • A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system
    • No Cure
  • 5. New HIV Infections in 2002 by Age Group
  • 6. Four Stages of HIV
  • 7. Stage 1 - Primary
    • Short, flu-like illness - occurs one to six weeks after infection
    • no symptoms at all
    • Infected person can infect other people
  • 8. Stage 2 - Asymptomatic
    • Lasts for an average of ten years
    • This stage is free from symptoms
    • There may be swollen glands
    • The level of HIV in the blood drops to very low levels
    • HIV antibodies are detectable in the blood
  • 9. Stage 3 - Symptomatic
    • The symptoms are mild
    • The immune system deteriorates
    • emergence of opportunistic infections and cancers
  • 10. Stage 4 - HIV  AIDS
    • The immune system weakens
    • The illnesses become more severe leading to an AIDS diagnosis
  • 11. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS
    • Bacterial
      • Tuberculosis (TB)
      • Strep pneumonia
    • Viral
      • Kaposi Sarcoma
      • Herpes
      • Influenza (flu)
  • 12. Opportunistic Infections associated with AIDS
    • Parasitic
      • Pneumocystis carinii
    • Fungal
      • Candida
      • Cryptococcus
  • 13. Modes of HIV/AIDS Transmission
  • 14. Through Bodily Fluids
    • Blood products
    • Semen
    • Vaginal fluids
    • Breast Milk
  • 15. Through IV Drug Use
    • Sharing Needles
      • Without sterilization
    • Increases the chances of contracting HIV
  • 16. Through Sex
    • Intercourse (penile penetration into the vagina)
    • Oral
    • Anal
    • Digital Sex
  • 17. Mother-to-Baby
    • Before Birth
    • During Birth
    • Postpartum
      • After the birth
  • 18. Testing Options for HIV
  • 19. Anonymous Testing
    • No name is used
    • Unique identifying number
    • Results issued only to test recipient
    23659874515 Anonymous
  • 20. Confidential Testing
    • Person’s name is recorded along with HIV results
      • Name and positive results are reported to the State Department and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    • Results issued only to test recipient
  • 21. Administration
    • Blood
    • Urine
    • Oral
  • 22. Blood Detection Tests
    • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA/EIA)
    • Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA)
    • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    • Western Blot Confirmatory test
  • 23. Urine Testing
    • Urine Western Blot
      • As sensitive as testing blood
      • Safe way to screen for HIV
      • Can cause false positives in certain people at high risk for HIV
  • 24. Oral Testing
    • Orasure
      • The only FDA approved HIV antibody.
      • As accurate as blood testing
      • Draws blood-derived fluids from the gum tissue.
      • NOT A SALIVA TEST!
  • 25. Counseling
  • 26. Pre-test Counseling
    • Transmission
    • Prevention
    • Risk Factors
    • Voluntary & Confidential
    • Reportability of Positive Test Results
  • 27. Post-test Counseling
    • Clarifies test results
    • Need for additional testing
    • Promotion of safe behavior
    • Release of results
  • 28. Treatment Options
  • 29. Antiretroviral Drugs
    • Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors
      • AZT (Zidovudine)
    • Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors
      • Viramune (Nevirapine)
    • Protease inhibitors
      • Norvir (Ritonavir)
  • 30. Opportunistic Infection Treatment
    • Issued in an event where antiretroviral drugs are not available
  • 31. Four ways to protect yourself?
    • Abstinence
    • Monogamous Relationship
    • Protected Sex
    • Sterile needles
  • 32.  
  • 33. Abstinence
    • It is the only 100 % effective method of not acquiring HIV/AIDS.
    • Refraining from sexual contact: oral, anal, or vaginal.
    • Refraining from intravenous drug use
  • 34. Monogamous relationship
    • A mutually monogamous (only one sex partner) relationship with a person who is not infected with HIV
    • HIV testing before intercourse is necessary to prove your partner is not infected
  • 35. Protected Sex
    • Use condoms (female or male) every time you have sex (vaginal or anal)
    • Always use latex or polyurethane condom (not a natural skin condom)
    • Always use a latex barrier during oral sex
  • 36. When Using A Condom Remember To:
    • Make sure the package is not expired
    • Make sure to check the package for damages
    • Do not open the package with your teeth for risk of tearing
    • Never use the condom more than once
    • Use water-based rather than oil-based condoms
  • 37. Sterile Needles
    • If a needle/syringe or cooker is shared, it must be disinfected:
      • Fill the syringe with undiluted bleach and wait at least 30 seconds.
      • thoroughly rinse with water
      • Do this between each person’s use
  • 38. Needle Exchange Program
    • Non-profit Organization, which provides sterile needles in exchange for contaminated ones
  • 39. ANY QUestions?
  • 40.