Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Project Portfolio Management (PPM): The Case of Scott Paper Company - UCHENNA OHAERI

4,497

Published on

The Scott Paper Company is a USA-based corporation that manufactures primarily paper based consumer products, such as tissues and paper towels. In 1995 Scott Paper merged with Kimberly-Clark however …

The Scott Paper Company is a USA-based corporation that manufactures primarily paper based consumer products, such as tissues and paper towels. In 1995 Scott Paper merged with Kimberly-Clark however the brand of Scott paper remains. In this scenario, Scott paper is managing a portfolio of new product launches. Its overall business strategy is to extend an existing international consumer Products Company into new international regions and markets. Scott Paper wants to grow incrementally and become more efficient with its Research and Development spending. The R&D efficiency focus is both internal within Scott Paper and external through Open Innovation sources.

The efforts by a company to orchestrate the whole process of new product development strategy is generally seen as a good practice and a precursor to perform an excellent project portfolio management to meet the strategic goals of identifying, assessing, prioritising and selecting various projects for new product launches. Adopting a pragmatic approach to new product development strategy will substantiate the proper use of project portfolio management methodologies and project selection processes based on the alignment with the company’s strategic mission.
The report seeks to answer and critically discuss the questions: What project portfolio elements are currently in place in the case company’s new product development processes? How does the company’s new product development approach reflect its overall business strategy? What are the limitations with the approach that the company is following?

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,497
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
133
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 1 | P a g eMANAGEMENTSCHOOLUNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOLProject Portfolio Management: The Case of Scott Paper CompanyUchenna Solomon Ohaeri11MSc Programme and Project Management Student, Management School, Faculty of Humanities,University of Liverpool, UK.E-mail:solodotcom2010@gmail.comMarked 23 May, 2013
  • 2. 2 | P a g eAbstractEffective application of project portfolio management (PPM) methodologies and best practices isgrowing in most project oriented organisations while considering the strategic goal in identifying,assessing and prioritising of their various projects for appropriate resource allocation. In a bid to achievethis goal, processes are put in place with the sole aim of generating current project status reports tofacilitate the sharing of resources to ensure the completion of projects that are in line with theorganisation‟s overall business strategy. On the other hand, these dynamic status reports will alsofacilitate the identification and assessing of projects that falls short of the overall organisationaldeliverables.The aim of this report is to critically evaluate how a case organisation uses the project managementmethods in relation to project portfolio management for new product development (NPD) and launch. Abrief literature reviewon PPM and best practices will be conducted as it relates the concept of newproduct development (NPD) and to match the organisation‟s current approach to industry bestpracticeswhich is based on the use of existing models and concepts.Keywords:Project portfolio management (PPM), new product development(NPD), new productdevelopment framework, strategic goals, project management office (PMO).IntroductionThe Scott Paper Company is a USA-based corporation that manufactures primarily paper based consumerproducts, such as tissues and paper towels. In 1995 Scott Paper merged with Kimberly-Clark however thebrand of Scott paper remains. In this scenario, Scott paper is managing a portfolio of new productlaunches. Its overall business strategy is to extend an existing international consumer Products Companyinto new international regions and markets. Scott Paper wants to grow incrementally and become moreefficient with its Research and Development spending. The R&D efficiency focus is both internal withinScott Paper and external through Open Innovation sources.
  • 3. 3 | P a g eThe efforts by a company to orchestrate the whole process of new product development strategy isgenerally seen as a good practice and a precursor to perform an excellent project portfolio management tomeet the strategic goals of identifying, assessing, prioritising and selecting various projects for newproduct launches. Adopting a pragmatic approach to new product development strategy will substantiatethe proper use of project portfoliomanagement methodologiesand project selection processes based on thealignment with the company‟s strategic mission.The report seeks to answer and critically discuss the questions: What project portfolio elements arecurrently in place in the case company’s new product development processes? How does the company’snew product development approach reflect its overall business strategy? What are the limitations with theapproach that the company is following?In the research conducted by Cooper et al. (2000), they stated that “there are two ways for a business tosucceed at new products, doing projects right and doing the right projects”, according to them, portfoliomanagement, in relation to the success of new product is about doing the right projects and have askedthe question: How should a company most effectively invest in R&D and new product resources?, this iswhat portfolio management is all about.Literature ReviewProject Portfolio Management (PPM)According to PMI (2008, pp. 8-9):A portfolio refers to a collection of projects or programs and other work that are groupedtogether to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic businessobjectives and its management refers to the centralised management of one or moreportfolios, which includes identifying, prioritising, authorising, managing, and controllingprojects, program and other related works, to achieve specific strategic businessobjectives.
  • 4. 4 | P a g eLevine (2005) argues that PPM generally aligns the management of stand-alone projects with businessoperations management (BOM).A periodic review and update of a dynamic process which consists ofportfolio of current and active projects with new ones being reviewed and prioritised (Cooper et al.,2001).Cooper et al. (2000), elaborates that project portfolio management should attain four strategic goals:portfolio value maximisation, portfolio balancing (right mix of projects), strategically aligned portfolioand resource capacity alignment. Achieving these goals goes with the support of various tools andtechniques which will result to a better portfolio management.A more product-centric definition ispresented by Adams-Bigelow(2004), cited in Khan et al. (2012, p. 182)stating that portfolio managementrepresents the screening out of product concepts to identify the preferable product concepts with which toproceed.New Product Development (NPD)A new product development process is made up of activities undertaken by companies during thedeveloping and launching of new products.Khan et al. (2012)explains the concept of new productdevelopment (NPD) practice as a customaryperformance that implements ideas and policies leading tothedevelopment and launch of new products and services.Booz, Allen and Hamilton (1982)identified sevensequential stages of new product development: new product strategy development, idea generation,screening & evaluation, business analysis, development, testing and commercialisation. Adopting thissystemic framework for managing new product activities will lessen associated risks inherent in theprocess.Cooper (1994)identified five stages in his stage gate NPD process: scoping, build business case,development, testing & validation and launch, each stage is presided by decision points called gates.New Product DevelopmentFrameworksThe development of NPD frameworks is gaining grounds in the field of project portfolio managementover the years, as quite a number of theoreticians, scholars and practitioners have tried to come up withmodels that accentuate the important stages of the new product development process (Cooper, 2001 and
  • 5. 5 | P a g eNew ProductStrategyDevelopmentIdeaGenerationScreeningandEvaluationBusinessAnalysisDevelopment Testing CommercialisationScheuing, 1974). Some of which are the Booz, Allen and Hamilton‟s framework developed by Booz,Allen and Hamilton (1982) in association with Booz Allen Hamilton Inc., the stage-gate frameworkdeveloped by Cooper (1994) in association with Product Development Institute Inc., and Stage GateInternational.Booz, Allen and Hamilton’s FrameworkThe Booz, Allen and Hamilton‟s seven-stage framework for new product development process is shownin figure 1 below.Figure 1: Booz, Allen and Hamilton’s framework – Stages of NPD(Source: adapted from Booz, Allen and Hamilton (1982))The seven sequential stages of the framework are:New Product Strategy Development: Lays foundation for the new product process in line withcompany‟s missions and objectives and clarifies the strategic requirements of new products withreference to subsequent NPD stages (from idea to launch).Idea generation: Series of searches for product ideas that meets companies strategic goals withseries of self-assessment to determine product categories.Screening and Evaluation: Analyses ideas gathered from the previous stage for further scrutiny.Business Analysis: Further scrutiny of ideas are performed and evaluated via a business plan thatidentify product attributes, barriers to entry, profits, target market, etc.Development: This is the transformation of conceptual business ideas into products with offeringsgoing through many alterations to fit test input results.
  • 6. 6 | P a g eTesting: Validates earlier business projections to fit market conditions.Commercialization: Market launch for the newly developed products.The Stage-Gate Five Stage FrameworkThe elements of a five-stage, five-gate framework of NPD process is shown in figure 2 below.Figure 2: Five-Stage, Five- Gate framework – Stage Gate NPD(Source: adapted from Cooper (1994))A close look at both frameworks shows some similarities, Cooper‟s Stage gate model is made up of fivedecision points called gates, a “go/no-go” decisions are made at these points before proceeding to the nextstage and through to the final product launch stage.1.0 The Case1.1 Elements of Project Portfolio Management at Scott Paper CompanyIn a bid to identify some of the elements of project portfolio management that exists in Scott PaperCompany‟s new product development process, an x-ray of the new product development frameworksdescribed in the literature review will be examined. Both frameworks will be used asyard sticks to bringout some of these elements. Based on these frameworks, sixproject portfolio management elements areevident in Scott Paper‟s new product development process, namely;1. Strategy development
  • 7. 7 | P a g e2. Idea generation3. Product Innovation via Research and Development4. Business case building5. Testing and sampling6. Ranking and prioritisation of projects.Strategy Development – new product:Scott Paper Company tries to lay a solid foundation for the new product process from idea to a successfullunch and in line with company‟s business strategy and requirements. As confirmed by Wind (1982),cited in Bhuiyan(2011, p. 751), before proceeding on a new product development project, companiesmust set clear objectives and formulate a clear new product strategyto meet them.This, the company‟s Chief Technology Officer (CTO) exhibited by taking a “core-satellite” approach tothe company‟s project portfolio, this involves a passive core – low cost diversification and an activesatellite – cost effective concentration. This approach also reflects a core global organisation maintainingrelationships with satellite organisations and partners(Speier et al., 1998), the core organisation usuallycalls on other partner (consumers, retailers, wholesalers, advertising agents) to respond to marketopportunities (Anderson & Narus, 1990; Harrigan, 1998 cited in Speier et al., (1998, p. 266)).This is evident because the CTO‟s strategy approach looks at high volume products with better marketdefinition and a higher success of product launch and build strong relationship with business partners,which is the ultimate goal of the company, this will set the pace for further product innovation for othermarkets like Japan.Idea Generation:Another element of portfolio management present in the company‟s new product development is theelement of idea generation which is the fuel of any dynamic process. The product ideas generated at thisstage are tailored to conform to the company‟s strategic goals observed at the new product strategy stage.
  • 8. 8 | P a g eThis is clearly seen from the company‟s new product development process and innovation which isanchored on monthly and quarterly reviews with major stakeholders and international partnersrespectively. They also brought in top management ideas via the CEO on a periodic basis and mostimportantly, from the customers as these products are tailored to meet their needs, this makes thecompany more customer-centric in their product development, creating a large source to capture ideasthus, expanding the pool of ideas to pick from.This is important because, a study conducted by Booz, Allen and Hamilton (1982); Griffin (1997) cited inBhuiyan(2011, p. 754), reveals that “a firm has to generate at least seven ideas to generate one successful,and on a larger scale, an average of 100 ideas must be generated in order to yield 15.2 successes.”Moore(2010) suggested that a consistent mechanism of idea capture can increase the number of ideas that couldtranslate into a project within the portfolio and enhance its effectiveness and meeting the organisationalgoals.Product Innovation via Research and Development:There are evidences of product innovation strategy element, through their research and developmentefforts and supported by ideas from within and outside the company via open innovation, this is also inline with the company‟s overall business strategy of achieving growth and being efficient with itsresearch and development spending. Ideas are like food to innovation and as the greatest inventor of ourtime Thomas Edison puts it “innovation is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration” that 1% inspiration isthe idea, innovation in this context is all about the commercialisation of ideas into products.Scott Paper Company has initiated a research and development effort to commercialise the idea of placingmedical substances into their already existing personal tissue product to relieve nasal congestion forindividuals with cold and flu. They have also extended their effort to add different colours and scents tothe product mix and a host of new product development effort in the mass transit tickets, stock/bondcertificates and a new high end speciality stationary paper.
  • 9. 9 | P a g eThis is important because it is in line with best practice and this is where they will create an impact bygrowing the business and create new opportunities and new market frontiers. An innovation strategy is anessential tool for product development and continued growth even in difficult times(Cooper and Edgett,2010).Business case building:Scott Paper Company also followed the element of business case building though feasibility studiesdepending on the established product categories that meets the company‟s strategic characteristics.The company has attached so much importance to this aspect as they have seen it as „a living document‟which qualifies ideas based on the degree of business they contribute to the bottom line. The ideas thathave been classified as “Go” ideas at the current decision point must be screened further using criteria setup by top management using various business models (Cooper and de Brentani, 1984; de Brentani, 1986cited in Bhuiyan (2011, p. 756)).Testing and sampling:The element of testing and sampling is also present in the company‟s new product development processand are crucial in both NPD frameworks, testing are carried out on „go‟ product ideas that have gonethrough the decision points (progressive elaboration) that leads to the testing stage.The company‟s ultimate goal is to reduce financial risk by reducing uncertainty through customeracceptance and market research tests in sampled customer categories and markets to ascertain the potencyof the products, this was confirmed by the company‟s VP, Research and Development who said that oncethe financial stakes are low, some level of uncertainty will be tolerated.The importance of this stagecannot be overemphasised as it has the capability of reducing the probability of failure in the productlaunch stage, it also possesses the ability to bring out market failure issues (Urban and Hauser, 1993).
  • 10. 10 | P a g eRanking and prioritisation of projects:Ranking and prioritisation is performed in an iterative manner at Scott Paper Company across fourcategories that exhibits the critical success factors of the new product development process and which arein line with the company‟s overall strategy.The ranking process is quite dynamic, as process might change in response to the disequilibrium inmarket conditions and new product test results, customer feedback, that will warrant constantreprioritisation as the categories changes.Cooper et al. (2000) elaborates that portfolio management is adynamic decision process,characterised by a constant updating and revision of active new productprojects, at the long run may be accelerated, killed, or de-prioritised.1.2 Scott Paper Company’s NPD Approach and Overall Business StrategyThe real power of program management (portfolio management) is the ability to link similarlyalignedprojects into programs that are tied to thebusiness strategy of the organization (Martinelli andWaddel, 2004). Therefore, there are certain goals and criteria project portfolio management must exhibitin the new product development process of Scott Paper Company, in order to reflect its overall businessstrategy, a project is termed failed without them.According to Cooper et al. (2000); Pennypacker andRetna (2009),some of the highlighted goals and objectives in project portfolio management are:StrategicDirection/Alignment,Strategic Balance and Value Maximisation (Returns).Strategic Alignment/Direction:Scott Paper Company‟s new product development stages reflects the overall strategic goals of thebusiness in terms of reducing costs across projects and market segment, speed to market, brandprotection, product innovation strategy and development priorities. These are evident in their statements,firstly, for those products area where financial uncertainty is less, some testing phases will be eliminated
  • 11. 11 | P a g eto lower costs and increase speed to market, secondly, Scott is unlikely to invest in areas that areinconsistent with what their brand represents, thirdly, going into long term product development willnegate their overall strategy of incremental growth, fourthly, they have focused on products that requiremore innovation, particularly for selected international markets such as Japan and lastly, in theirdevelopment if they spend a couple of months and can‟t get to where they want to be, the product will bereprioritised, these are some of the strategic directions of the various projects in the new productdevelopment process that supports or fits the overall business strategy of the company, they are regardedas necessary and sufficient for the overall strategy to succeed, if sufficiency is taken out, failure abounds,rendering the other aligned projects useless (Pennypacker and Retna, 2009).Strategic Balance:Strategic balance, according to Pennypacker and Retna (2009), means that the portfolio has anappropriate mix of projects with respect to the organisational objectives and mandates. The balance couldbe based on some matrices such as the balance between short and long term projects, marketsdiversification, categorisation of products, to mention but a few, these are exhibited at Scott PaperCompany and are pointers to the overall strategic goal.Value Maximisation (Returns):Scott Paper Company‟s new product development approach will reflect the overall business strategythrough value maximisation which according to Pennypacker and Retna (2009), means “that the approvedportfolio achieves the best aggregate financial outcome in relation to the required aggregate investmentinto the product, this will translate to profit for the company which is in line with their organisationalgrowth strategy.1.3 Scott Paper Company’s NPD Approach - LimitationsSome of the limitations with the approach Scott Paper Company is following includes;Screening and Evaluation /Business Analysis ProcessToo many innovative productProject Management Office (PMO) establishment
  • 12. 12 | P a g eScreening and Evaluation /Business Analysis Process:The tools and techniques employed in the two stages (Screening and Evaluation & BusinessAnalysis) of the new product development process adopted by Scott Paper were basically hingedon only qualitative techniques in date analysis which includes physical observation andknowledge of market conditions, monthly and quarterly reviews.Quantitative techniques of data analysis like some financial or economic models which analysesproject evaluation much like a conventional investment decisionBhuiyan (2011) can be used toassess and finally select projects. Some of these tools are the Expected Commercial Value (ECV),Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and the Profitability Index (PI).Too many Innovative product:It is evident from the innovation strategy of Scott Paper‟s NPD process that there are too manyproduct development programs at a time, the question is, will the available resources andinvestment match these projects? And is it in line with the overall strategy of incremental growthand efficiency in research and development spending? The answers are not positively correlatedwith the numerous product development programs initiated by the company. Investing in toomany innovations means taking huge risks.Project Management Office (PMO) establishment:Every project portfolio management is backed up by a Project Management Office (PMO) whichis set up to better coordinate and manage the activities of the entire new product developmentprocess, providing guidance and best practices where necessary to ensure organisational goals aremet. Scott Paper Company falls short of this.2.0 Development of Project Portfolio Management within an OrganisationFor the development, implementation and maintenance of a healthy and sustainable project portfoliomanagement, an organisation needs to possess some important attributes such as the communication of anexplicit corporate and strategic goals and objectives that supports the project portfolio management
  • 13. 13 | P a g einitiatives, more importantly is the commitment and leadership of top management team to set the rightorganisational culture inherent in policies, strategies and guidelines.This is supported by Killen et al. (2007)stating that the involvement of top management team from theoutset is key to realising the full benefits of project portfolio management, accompanied with effectiveresource allocation to accomplish it.For example, in the product development setting, Heising (2012)alsobuttressed the fact that involvement and support of top management at the outset of the developmentprocess. He further attributed this to the success of most companies as researches have shown.On the other hand, the processes of the project portfolio management must conform to the projectmanagement best practices and methodologies maintained in the organisation, and support the assessing,prioritisation and selection of projects.Levine (2005) argues that PPM generally aligns the managementof stand-alone projects with business operations management, the overall strategy of the business andperformance evaluation.Organisational Culture:Project portfolio management is a process that spreads across the organisation, therefore, a healthy levelof organisational culture must be maintained in order to cope with the changes in the projects due tointernal and external factors which is the characteristic of a sustainable PPM. The culture of theorganisation must also support the acceptance of the project portfolio management process outcomes atevery organisational level.The Project Management Office (PMO):PMI (2008) stipulates that a PMO is an organisational body or entity saddled with various responsibilitiesof centralised and coordinated management of projects under its domain. They are developed to supportproject managers in carrying out their duties, acts as the information and communication hub for theentire organisation, allocate and manage resources within projects, provides uniform reporting format anddocumentation, develop, maintain and enforce project management best practices and standards at alltimes and most importantly, integration of work across functional units in the organisation.
  • 14. 14 | P a g eTherefore a well-established project portfolio management in a projectised organisation will ensure thatprojects are carried out efficiently based on established KPIs and integration with the organisation bypairing them down and prioritising them(LaBrosse, 2010, p.75).Figure 3 below shows a pictorial view of a project portfolio management setting in an organisation.Figure 3: PMO setting and responsibilities(Source: adapted from http://www.edufungames.com/businesscorner/biznizgames.php?tid=5)8.0 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKThe importance of project portfolio management in new product development cannot be undermined,though its successful implementation still poses challenges for most organisations. But a lot oforganisations are beginning to acknowledge the major contributions new products development processare adding to their bottom line and are continuously seeking for more opportunities to improve thepractice of the process for improved performance.Scott Paper Company is not left out on this feat, as they have tried to inculcate some of the projectportfolio management elements in their new product development process and reflect the overall businessstrategy in their actions, decisions and implementation of the process, which is the ultimate goal the PPMseeks to achieve. Scott Paper should also try to set up a PMO that will sit across the functional units of
  • 15. 15 | P a g ethe projects to provide coordination, advisory, training and continuous improvement services to thecompany and to ensure the complete realisation of the overall business goals.Further works should be carried out in the critical assessing and analysing the new product developmentprocess in a bid to identify how companies like Scott Paper Company can up their performance in theprocess with more emphasis on the CSFs.
  • 16. 16 | P a g eReferencesBhuiyan, N. (2011). A Framework for Successful New Product Development, Journal ofIndustrial Engineering and Management, 4(4), 746-770.Booz, Allen and Hamilton. (1982). New product management for the 1980‟s. New York: Booz,Allen & Hamilton, Inc.Cooper, R. G. (1994) Perspective: Third Generation New Product Processes; Journal ofProductInnovation Management, 11, 3-14.Cooper, R. G. (2001). Winning at New Products: Accelerating the Process from Idea to Launch,3rd ed., Massachusetts: Perseus Publishing.Cooper, R. G. and Edgett, S.J. (2010), Developing a Product Innovation and Technology Strategyfor your Business; IEEE Engineering Management Review, 38(4), 101-109.Cooper, R.G.; Edgett, S.J. and Kleinschmidt, E.K. (2000). Portfolio Management: Fundamentalfor New Product Success [Online], Product Development Institute 2000-2013, Available athttp://www.stage-gate.com/downloads/wp/wp_12.pdf [Accessed 4th April 2013].Cooper, R.G.; Edgett, S.J. and Kleinschmidt, E.K. (2001), Portfolio Management for NewProducts, 2nd ed., Perseus Books, Cambridge, Mass.Heising, W. (2012). The integration of Ideation and Project Portfolio Management: A Key Factorfor Sustainable Success, International Journal of Project Management, 30, 582–595.Khan, K.B.; Barczak, G.; Nicholas, J.; Ledwith, A.; Perks, H. (2012). An Examination of NewProduct Development Best Practice, Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(2),180–192Killen, C.; Hunt, R. and Kleinschmidt, E.K. (2007): Managing the New Product DevelopmentProject Portfolio: A Review of the Literature and Empirical Evidence. PICMET 2007Proceedings, Oregon, 1864-1874.LaBrosse, M. (2010). Project Portfolio Management, Employment Relation Today, WileyInterScience, 37 (2), 75-79.
  • 17. 17 | P a g eLevine, H.A. (2005). Project Portfolio Management, Jossey-Bass. Wiley Imprint, USA, 2005Martinelli, R. and Waddel, J. (2004), Demystifying “Program Management”: Linking BusinessStrategy to Product Development, PDMA Visions, 28(1), 20-23.Moore, S. (2010). Strategic Project Portfolio Management: Enabling a Productive Organisation,John Wiley & Sons Publishing, New Jersey.Pennypacker, J and Retna, S. (2009), Project Portfolio Management: A View from theManagement Trenches, ed., John Wiley & Sons Publishing, New Jersey.PMI (2008). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide), 4th ed.,Project Management Institute, Newtown Square, PA.Scheuing, E. (1974), New Product Management, Hinsdale, Ill.: The Darden Press.Speier, C.; Harvey, M.G. and Palmer, J. (1998), Virtual Management of Global MarketingRelationships, Journal of World Business, 33(3), 263-276Urban, C., and Hauser, J. (1993). Design and Marketing of New Products. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.

×