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Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
Vst motors report modified
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Vst motors report modified

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  1. CK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY CHELLANGKUPPAM WORK ALONG PROGRAM TRAINING REPORT “ MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT”
  2. This report is about the “WORK ALONG PROGRAM” in “VST TATA MOTORS”. We give a details of about the company and my work learnings experiences. we explained below that”what we are learnings in the work along program” And we give the short details about different types of works inside the company. And our sincere thanks to our faculties and HOD for conducting this work along program……………………………
  3. LIST OF LEARNINGS IN WORK ALONG PROGRAM S.NO DATE WORK TITLES 1 15-7-13 OVERVIEW THE COMPANY WORKS 2 16-7-13 KNOW ABOUT ENGINE PARTS 3 17-7-13 SERVICING A STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL ENGINE VEHICLE 4 18-7-13 SERVICING A GEAR BOX 5 19-7-13 WHEEL ALINGNMENT 6 20-7-13 ASSEMBLING A NEW MODEL PISTON TO FAILURE ENGINE 7 22-7-13 SERVICING A LUBRICATION SYSTEM OF LORRY ENGINE 8 23-7-13 RECONSTRUCT THE ACCIDENT VEHICLE 9 24-7-13 PAINTING THE VEHICLES 10 25-7-13 REPAIR THE SEIZED ENGINE 11 26-7-13 SETUP THE TIMING GEARS 12 27-7-13 SERVICING A SUSPENSIONS
  4. CONTENT:  Overview of company  Profile of company  Sales & service  Service sections  Spares  Specifications  Suggestions  Conclusion  Acknowledgement OVERVIEW OF COMPANY: TATA MOTORS (formerly TELCO) is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India and a subsidiary of the TataGroup. Tata Motors products include passenger cars, trucks, vans, coaches, buses and military vehicles. It is the world'seighteenth-largestmotorvehicle manufacturing company, fourthlargest truck manufacturer and second-largest bus manufacturer by volume. VST Motors Pvt. Ltd was incorporated on 11th July, 1949 and is an authorized dealer for TATA Motors Ltd. Until 1956 the company was the distributor for Austin and Studebaker cars. In 1956 we were appointed as TELCO commercial vehicle dealers. Over the last five decades we have opened multiple branches across the state of Tamilnadu. The timeline is as follows: 1949 VST Motors Pvt. Ltd commenced operations dealing in AUSTIN and STUDEBAKER Cars 1956 Appointed as a TELCO dealer (presently Tata Motors), one of the first to be appointed in the country 1957 VST Motors branch opened at Salem 1958 VST Motors branch opened at Vellore 1961 VST Motors branch opened at Trichy 1962 VST Motors branch opened at Cuddalore 1978 VST Motors branch opened at Pondicherry 1992 Commenced Tata Motors Passenger Car sales in Chennai and Thiruchirapalli
  5. VST Motors Ltd. (Head Office) Address: OldNo144,NewNo.199 AnnaSalai Chennai TamilNadu 600002 Phone: 044-28602485 Mobile: 9884396633 SalesEmail:recpchennai@vstmotors.com Spares Email:hospares@vstmotors.com COMPANY PROFILE: NAME OF THE COMPANY: VST MOTORS Pvt. Ltd., DEALER : TATA MOTORS (TELCO) ADDRESS : KONDUR, NELLIKUPPAM MAIN ROAD, CUDDALORE CONTACT NUMBER :04142- 225137, 290950, and 290317 E-MAIL ID :carscuddalor@vstmotors.com HEAD QUARTERS : CHENNAI, INDIA MODE OF PROCESS : SALES & SERVICE STARTED IN : 28-03-1962 MONTHLY INCOME : 3-5 LAKHS IN SERVICE : 1-2 LAKHS IN SPARE PARTS : 10-20 LAKHS IN SALES TARGET : 40 LAKHS PER MONTH SPARE PARTS USED : GENIUE SPARE PARTS FROM TELCO SPARE PARTS FROM : TATA MOTORS IN MUMBAI & MAHARASHTRA, INDIA SERVICING VECHICLE: ONLY TATA VECHICLES FROM ALL OVER INDIA NUMBER OF VECHICLES
  6. SERVICED : 15-20 VECHICLES PER DAY AREA OF SERVICE WORSHOP: 1200×64 Sq FEET MODE OF OPERATION : ALL WORKS. Such as, Engine Works, Body Works, Chassis Works ,Gear Box Works ,Suspension Works ,Steering Works, Wheel Alignment , Wheel Balancing, Fc Works, Painting Works ,Brake Cleaning, Oil Service ,Clutch Work, Electrical Works, etc., NUMBER OF RAMP : 3 RAMPS IN PERSONAL 1 RAMP IN PROSPER OFFICE WORKING TIME: 8.45A.M TO 5.00 P.M SECTIONS IN SERVICE WORKSHOP: THE SERVICE WORKSHOP IS CLASSIFIED INTO 3 UNITS, THEY ARE PERSONAL PROSPER NAVISTAR PERSONAL: In personal unit only the cars are serviced. Such as Bolero, Scorpio, Xylo, Verito, Verito Vibe, Thar, Logon, XUV500. PROSPER: In prosper unit only the load carrying vehicles are serviced. Such as TATA ACE, TATA407/909, TATA SUPER ACE, truck. NAVISTAR: In Navistar unit only the vans are serviced. Such as Load King, Tourister.
  7. EMPLOYEE DETAILS: SL.NO DESCRIPTION NUMBER OF PERSON 1 General Manager 1 2 Sales Manager 1 3 Service Manager 1 4 Warranty Manager 1 5 Parts Manager 1 6 Body shop Manager 1 7 Sales Consultant 11 8 Service Advisor 4 9 Floor Controller 2 10 Co-Tek 1 11 E-Tek 2 12 Technician 16 13 Trainer 18 SPECIFIC LEARNINGS OPERATIONS: All kinds of works are done in this service center but only for the vehicles which are manufactured by Tata motor from all over India. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:
  8. ENGINE SECTIONS: In engine sections the valve timing, replacement of engine spare parts, piston alignment and etc works are doing here. Today, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is used in motorcycles, automobiles, boats, trucks, aircraft, ships, heavy duty machinery, and in its original intended use as stationary power both for kinetic and electrical power generation. Diesel engines are found in virtually all heavy duty applications such as trucks, ships, locomotives, power generation, and stationary power. Many of these diesel engines are twostroke with power ratings up to 105,000 hp (78,000 kW). A four-stroke engine (also known as four-cycle) is an internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes—intake, compression, power, and exhaust—during two separate revolutions of the engine's crankshaft, and one single thermodynamic cycle. The following process done during engine in run process 1. INTAKE stroke: on the intake or induction stroke of the piston, the piston descends from the top of the cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder, increasing the volume of the cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air, or just air in a diesel engine, is forced by atmospheric (or greater) pressure into the cylinder through the intake port. The intake valve(s) then closes. The volume of air/fuel mixture that is drawn into the cylinder, relative to the maximum volume of the cylinder, is called the volumetric efficiency of the engine. 2. COMPRESSION stroke: with both intake and exhaust valves closed, the piston returns to the top of the cylinder compressing the air or fuel-air mixture into the combustion chamber of the cylinder head. During the compression stroke the temperature of the air or fuel-air mixture rises by several hundred degrees.
  9. 3. POWER stroke: this is the start of the second revolution of the cycle. While the piston is close to Top Dead Centre, the compressed air–fuel mixture in a gasoline engine is ignited, usually by a spark plug, or fuel is injected into a diesel engine, which ignites due to the heat generated in the air during the compression stroke. The resulting pressure from the combustion of the compressed fuel-air mixture forces the piston back down toward bottom dead centre. 4. EXHAUST stroke: during the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns to top dead centre while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent fuel-air mixture through the exhaust valve(s). DESIGN & ENGINEERING PRINCIPLE: (a) POWER OUTPUT LIMITATIONS The four-stroke cycle 1=TDC
  10. 2=BDC A: Intake B: Compression C: Power D: Exhaust The idealized four-stroke Otto cycle p-V diagram: the intake (A) stroke is performed by an isobaric expansion, followed by the compression (B) stroke, performed by an adiabatic compression. Through the combustion of fuel anisochoric process is produced, followed by an adiabatic expansion, characterizing the power (C) stroke. The cycle is closed by an isochoric process and an isobaric compression, characterizing the exhaust (D) stroke. (b) INTAKE/EXHAUST PORT FLOW  The output power of an engine is dependent on the ability of intake (air–fuel mixture) and exhaust matter to move quickly through valve ports, typically located in the cylinder head.  To increase an engine's output power, irregularities in the intake and exhaust paths, such as casting flaws, can be removed, and, with the aid of an air flow bench, the radii of valve port turns and valve seat configuration can be modified to reduce resistance.  This process is called porting, and it can be done by hand or with a CNC machine. (c) ROD AND PISTON-TO-STROKE RATIO:
  11.  The rod-to-stroke ratio is the ratio of the length of the connecting rod to the length of the piston stroke.  A longer rod reduces sidewise pressure of the piston on the cylinder wall and the stress forces, increasing engine life. It also increases the cost and engine height and weight.  A "square engine" is an engine with a bore diameter equal to its stroke length. An engine where the bore diameter is larger than its stroke length is an over square engine, conversely, an engine with a bore diameter that is smaller than its stroke length is an under square engine. (d) VALVE TRAIN  The valves are typically operated by a camshaft rotating at half the speed of the crankshaft. It has a series of cams along its length, each designed to open a valve during the appropriate part of an intake or exhaust stroke.  A tappet between valve and cam is a contact surface on which the cam slides to open the valve. Many engines use one or more camshafts ―above‖ a row (or each row) of cylinders, as in the illustration, in which each cam directly actuates a valve through a flat tappet.  In other engine designs the camshaft is in the crankcase, in which case each cam contacts a push, which contacts a rocker arm that opens a valve.  The overhead cam design typically allows higher engine speeds because it provides the most direct path between cam and valve. (e) VALVE CLEARANCE  Valve clearance refers to the small gap between a valve lifter and a valve stem that ensures that the valve completely closes.  On engines with mechanical valve adjustment, excessive clearance causes noise from the valve train.  A too small valve clearance can result in the valves not closing properly, this result in a loss of performance and possibly overheating of exhaust valves.  Typically, the clearance must be readjusted each 20,000 miles (32,000 km) with a feeler gauge.  Most modern production engines use hydraulic lifters to automatically compensate for valve train component wear. Dirty engine oil may cause lifter failure. (f) THERMO DYNAMIC ANALYSIS: The thermodynamic analysis of the actual four-stroke or two-stroke cycles is not a simple task. However, the analysis can be simplified significantly if air standard
  12. assumptions are utilized. The resulting cycle, which closely resembles the actual operating conditions, is the Otto cycle. OIL SERVICE PROCESS:  In oil service the gear, engine, differential, brake oils are changed.  The oil cap is lossened.Then the old effective less oil is removed through the oil drain plug.  After removing the old oil the drain plug is tightened. Then the new oil is charged into the elements. SIGNIFICANT FEATURES:  Friction is reduced.  Provide good lubricating properties.  Engine efficiency increases. Wheel Balancing and Alignment:  Wheel balancing and alignment are done at least every 5000kms.  Sensor holder is fixed in each wheel, and then the sensor is fixed perpendicularly.  The toe, caster, camper angle are specified in alignment software.  The caster, toe angle is adjusted as per shown in monitor. Significant features:  To provide good steering control.  To reduce the wheel vibration. BRAKE LINING PROCESS:  The wheel is removed from the drum, and then the drum is removed.  The springs connected in brake shoes are disconnected. Then the old lining is replaced by new ones.
  13. CLUTCH WORK:  The propeller shaft is disconnected. Then the clutch cover is removed.  Pressure plate and clutch plate is removed from fly wheel.  Then the old pressure and clutch is replaced. SIGNIFICANT FEATURES:  To disconnect the power while changing the gear.  To reduce the friction in gear. SUSPENSION PROCESS:  The process of replacing the shock absorber, camper rod, toe rod is known as suspension.
  14.  The wheels are removed. The steering rods are disconnected  Then the damaged component is replaced by new ones. SUPERCHARGING:  One way to increase engine power is to force more air into the cylinder so that more power can be produced from each power stroke.  This can be done using some type of air compression device known as a supercharger, which can be powered by the engine crankshaft.  Supercharging increases the power output limits of an internal combustion engine relative to its displacement.  Most commonly, the supercharger is always running, but there have been designs that allow it to be cut out or run at varying speeds (relative to engine speed).  Mechanically driven supercharging has the disadvantage that some of the output power is used to drive the supercharger, while power is wasted in the high pressure exhaust, as the air has been compressed twice and then gains more potential volume in the combustion but it is only expanded in one stage. TURBO CHARGING PROCESS:  In turbo charger system the exhaust gas which would normally be wasted, is used to drive a turbine. The turbine shaft is connected to a compressor which draws in filtered air compresses is and then supplies to the engine.  The turbine drives a compressor which draws in filtered air and feeds this, at a higher pressure, to the engine.  This enables more fuel to be burnt with a greater mass of charge air, increasing engine power output. Better air availability enhances better combustion, thus leading to lower fuel consumption and less emission.  Turbo system is 30 times faster than engine and the spins speed is150,000 rpm  As a result turbo chargers contribute significantly to the protective of the environment and better utilization of energy resources TURBO SYSTEM’S NEED  Clearance between rotor and journals  Dynamically balanced parts
  15.  Lubrication is needed to lubricate the system SIGNIFICANT FEATURES:  Low fuel consumption.  Lower emission.  Better torque characteristics.  Lower weight and a smaller engine package.  Lower engine noise.  Reduced power uses at altitude compensation. THERMO STAT This system is used to maintained the temperature of engine by means of regulate/control the thermo stat valve which is connected between the engine and radiator. This valve is opened due to expansion of some liquid which is lift the valve(attached valve in system/not working in any valve mechanism) SPECIFICATION  This valve opened when the engine temperature above 90oC  Till this temperature they are opening. When temperature down below 90oC then it will automatically closed. TURBO INTER COOLER SYSTEM: This system is used to maintained the inlet air-fuel mixture/air temperature. It is extracted from turbo charger system. When the air is sucked from air filter it will manipulate the air into working temperature condition. By means of feeding working conditioned air we got high efficiency. SPECIFICATION:  Reduce the inlet manifold temperature  Reduce the exhaust emission  Get engine maximum efficiency EXHAUST GAS RE-CIRCULATOR: This system is one of the best system which is extracted from turbo charger system. The name itself indicates exhaust gas re circulator that means 20% of exhaust gas is again used
  16. as a inlet. This is only used when high load variation in vehicle (less air is sucked/to improve high rotations of engine shaft) REMOVAL OF THE AXLE FROM THE VEHICLE:  Remove tiers using wheel spanner  Support body on stand  Remove the shock absorber  Remove the brake pipe t clamp from axle  Axle to be supported & should not fall Loosen U clamps  Remove the LSPV spring from axle end  Remove the axle from the vehicle REMOVAL OF THE DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY:  Drained the oil & remove axle shaft from both side.  Remove the differential cover set screws ensure that the oil had been drained out.  Remove the side bearing bolts & caps  Expand the differential carrier  Do not exceed a limit of carrier spread. use dial indicator & measured the spread.  Do not exceed a limit of 0.5mm  Pull out the crown along with the bearings  Lock the companion flange  Unlock the pinion nut remove the companion flange along with the dust cover. Remove oil seal  Remove the pinion along with bearings. DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARING REMOVAL & REFITMENT:  Remove the differential side bearings by using bearing puller
  17.  To install the differential side bearing, use bearing driver ADJUSTMENT OF DIFFERENTIAL SIDE GEARS:  With the differential positioned on one side, bounce the Differential lightly on a flat surface so that the differential gears settle.  Measure the clearance between the side gears & the case.  If the clearance exceeds 0.15mm, add shims between side gears & the case.  Keep shim packs as equal as possible on each side.  Place crown wheel over the differential case, Assemble the lock straps along with bolts.  Tighten opposite bolts & torque them to 5.5 to 7.0 kg-m. INSTALLATION OF AXLE SHAFT OIL SEAL: A] Full Floating Axle Axle shaft oil seal [inner] can be installed using Special tool B] Semi-floating axle [Old type -CL 500/550 DI]: Axle shaft oil seal [Outer seals] can be installed using proper tool. PINION HEIGHT CHECKING:  This method is used for checking the pinion height to confirm that the original setting is not disturbed.  Remove differential assembly  This method is used for checking the pinion height to confirm that the original setting is not disturbed.  Remove differential assembly  Note the reading on pinion top [ Z Value ]  If the pinion reading is ‗+ ‘, check the gap between master gauge & pinion. If this gap & pinion reading is same, pinion height is ok. [+/-2 thou variation is allowed ]  If the pinion reading is ‗-‘, check the gap between master gauge & ring gear side bearing seats. If this gap & pinion reading is same, pinion height is ok. [+/-2 thou variation is allowed ]
  18. PINION HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT:  This method is used while replacing the old crown & pinion if the original setting is not disturbed earlier.  Note the reading of ‗Z‘value etched on old & new pinion.  Find the difference between them by using following formula. [OLD PINION READING] -[ NEW PINION READING]  If the difference: [OLD PINION READING] -[ NEW PINION READING] Give ‗+‘value, it indicate the amount of shim to be added in original shim pack.  If the difference: [OLD PINION READING] -[ NEW PINION READING] Give ‗‘value, it indicate the amount of shim to be removed from original shim pack. RING GEAR & PINION BACKLASH SETTING:  Remove differential assembly from housing.  Remove differential side bearing  Remove shims from both the side & press bearing w/o shim EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES BHARAT STAGE II/IIIENGINES BSII -ALL INDIA IMPLEMENTATION BY APRIL 2005 TATA RANGE EMISSION CONTROL FOR BSII DIESEL ENGINES NORMAL/IDEAL COMBUSTION Diesel(C10h22) + Air(77% N2, 23% O2) ---> Co2+ H20 + N2 ACTUAL COMBUSTION Diesel(C10h22) + Air(77% N2, 23% O2) ---> Co2+ H20 + N2+ Co + Hc + NOx+ PM + O2 COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST Co-colorless, poisonous gas HC colorless, poisonous gas Nox-brownish, poisonous gas, pmparticulate matter, commonly called soot or smoke co2-non-poisonous -potential greenhouse gas related to global warming. H2O-Non-Poisonous EMISSION CONTROL FOR BS2 DIESEL ENGINES BHARAT STAGE 2 EMISSION NORMS –TYPE APPROVAL 4 wheeler Passenger DIESEL Vehicles with GVW < 3.5 Tons •Vehicles with seating
  19. Capacity > 6 persons ( Including Driver) or GVW > 2500 kg) Chassis Dynamometer Tests (Cycle: EEC + EUDC -90kmph) All in g/km RW<1250 1250<RW < 1700 1.25 >1700 1.50 CO 1.00 1.00 1.20 HC+Nox 0.70 0.12 0.17 PM Category 0.08 Class I Class II RW Class III RW –REFERENCE WEIGHT –CURB WEIGHT + 200 Kgs Tests are on Chassis Dynamometer EUDC Cycle Speed is limited to 90kmphinstead of 120 km/h (in EEC). EMISSION CONTROL FOR BSII DIESEL ENGINES Emission control technologies try to reduce these harmful exhaust gases by the following technologies: 1. In-cylinder combustion improvements In-cylinder improvements aims to attack the problem at the source, i.e. improve the quality of combustion inside the cylinder so that less of harmful pollutants are produced inside the cylinder. Some of the in-cylinder options are: (i) Modification to internal engine components (ii) Modifications to fuel injection system (iii) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system 2. Exhaust gas after treatment Exhaust gas after treatment aims to reduce the pollutants after they are generated inside the engine but before it is released to the atmosphere. Some of the options are: (I) catalyst in the exhaust PRINCIPLES OF NOx GENERATION Nox (oxides of nitrogen) comprises of various types of oxides of Nitrogen, clubbed together. These are NO, NO2, No3, N2O2, etc. Nitrogen is an inert gas and will not react with oxygen in normal conditions. However, under certain conditions, nitrogen starts to react with oxygen and forms oxides of nitrogen.
  20. Conditions favoring formation of NOX. 1. In-cylinder temperatures excessive of 1800°C 2. Availability of excess free oxygen Technologies for NOX. Control aims to reduce either one or both of the above factors inside the engine cylinder. Principles of NOX. Control NOX. Can be controlled either by arresting the formation, at source or by exhaust after treatment. 1. in-cylinder NOX.control Formation of NOX. Can be controlled either by reducing the combustion temperatures or by reducing the availability of free oxygen. This is achieved by exhaust gas recirculation -EGR, 2. Exhaust after treatment NOX.Control Catalytic treatment of NOX. Requires a catalyst to reduce NOX to N2. The available catalysts to reduce NOX. to N2works on oxygen- free exhaust. There is no catalyst technology available, as of now, which can reduce NOX.in an oxygen-rich exhaust, as found in diesel exhaust. Principles of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) EGR system recirculates part of the burnt exhaust back in to the intake system, to help in reducing the combustion temperatures as well as reducing the quantity of free oxygen. Reduction of combustion temperatures-exhaust gases is inert gases with a very high value of Cp, i.e. they do not take part in combustion but absorbs heat without increasing its temperature. This acts as a heat sink and reduces the overall combustion temperatures. Reduction of free oxygen inside cylinder-exhaust gases occupy some space and reduce the equivalent amount of free oxygen. DOUBLE CONE SYNCHRONIZER SET UP:  Place hub on the plain surface and install sleeve on to the hub as shown in the picture. Please ensure big groove comes exactly in center of the hub slot.  Place 3 nos. struts at each slot of the hub. Push struts against sleeve and slid in the grove.  Be careful, struts should not jump out of ring, causes injury  Place outer ring on the hub by engaging ring‘s projections in to hub pockets  Place intermediate ring as shown in the picture, three tangs should come in front
  21. of groove on the hub.  Place inner ring by engaging tangs with the pocket of outer ring.  For reference: marking on the inner ring should come exactly in center of groove on the hub.  Please ensure that inner ring is seated properly in the Pocket of outer ring. Intermediate ring and inner ring should be almost at one level.  Place 1st gear by engaging intermediate ring‘s tang with the three cuts on the dog plate of gear.  Please ensure other synchronizer assembly remains in the same position.  Invert the above whole assembly and put on to the Gear box shaft.  Put outer ring, intermediate ring, inner ring and 2nd gear as described above ADVANTAGES:  Improved Shift quality – smooth shifting  Improved shift performance - reduced shift times  No deterioration in shift quality during life  Reduced wear gap, Shorter shift  Minimal Wear GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY:  Assemble Main shaft gear with synchronizer units & bearings  Fit main shaft assay in intermediate plate & fit the snap ring  Fit bearing retainer plate. Torque bolts to 3.00 kgm  Assemble 1st/ 2nd& 3rd/ 4thshift rail, rail end assembly and shift forks.
  22.  Take care that poppet springs, interlock pin / finger and balls are not damaged or mixed / misplaced while assembling fork and rail assembly.  Do not forget to assemble Reverse gear on the Main Shaft.  While assembling, ensure fitment of spacer.  GB assay is possible without the spacer.  Assemble sliding gear with 5th/ Reverse Synchronizer assay along with shift rail & shift fork assembly  Assemble ball, poppet spring and plug.  Apply Loctite-542 on the threads of poppet plug while assembling  Assemble the front housing with the assembled intermediate housing.  Assemble the 5thdrive gear assembly on to the 5th/ Reverse sub-shaft  Assemble 5thdriven gear and bearing assembly on to the main shaft.  Assemble the spacer -5thdrive gear on the sub- shaft.  Assemble the ball bearing on the sub shaft  Fit the rear housing onto the Intermediate plate  Put correct shim on the main drive shaft.  Assemble snap ring.  Fit Spacer on the counter shaft  Place Belleville washer properly on to the clutch release bearing sleeve.  (Smear grease to locate washer properly)  Assemble clutch release bearing sleeve  Take care that front end oil seal is not damaged  Assemble speedometer driven gear and Speedo sleeve  Apply Loctite -5 10 on threads of Speedo sleeve to avoid oil leakage  Assemble interlock pin, finger, balls, poppet spring and poppet plug.  Apply Loctite-542 on the threads of poppet plug while assembling.  Fit companion flange, washer and Nyloc nut.  Assemble gear shift lever along with self-contained biasing unit.
  23.  Fit shift lever grommet  Check for smooth shifting.  Fill oil & check for any leakage ASSEMBLY OF CASE:  Insert the two new dowel pins.  Press the ball bearing into the case and install the retaining ring (snap ring).  Install the new oil seal, by pressing it into the case.  Make sure that all parts are correctly and firmly installed into the case ASSEMBLY OF ADAPTER, INPUT SHAFT AND CARRIER ASSEMBLY:  Press the needle bearing and the new sleeve bearing into the input shaft (if removed).  Install the sun gear onto the input shaft and put thrust plate, thrust washer and press the bearing onto the input shaft.  After pressing the bearing, install the retaining ring.  Insert the above assembly into the planet carrier. (Ensure that planet carrier assembly on the work bench is such that the retaining rings ‘mounting groove faces upward).  Install the retaining ring to the planet carrier.  Press the serial pin into the front adapter.  Press the oil seal into the front adapter.  Invert front adapter assembly. Install snap ring by make sure that snap ring is correctly installed into the groove.  Position the input shaft assembly over front adapter and engage into bearing groove by expanding the ends of snap ring (Push Input shaft and carrier assembly in to the front adapter.)  Apply 1.6 mm bead of sealant on the mounting face for the transfer case and tighten the six bolts. 11. Install the breather barb. ASSEMBLY OF YOKE:  Position the output shaft in transfer case and install the end yoke assembly, seal, washer and nut.  Holding the end yoke by yoke holder, tighten the nut.  Turn the fixture for further assembly.
  24. ASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION SHIFT PARTS:  Install the two forks facing on the reduction shift fork assembly.  Install the reduction hub in to the fork.  Install reduction hub and fork in to the planet carrier.  Insert shift rail in reduction fork bore, to match with case bore. ASSEMBLY OF ELECTRICAL SHIFT CAM PARTS:  Insert spacer into torsion spring insert the shift shaft into the spacer. Slide electric cam on to the shift shaft.  Slide the torsion spring and spacer to the right of the shift shaft and position the end of the first spring to fix on the drive tang.  Position the cam on the second spring and rotated anticlockwise. Push the end of the second spring to left with cam and fix it on the drive tang. ASSEMBLY OF OUTPUT SHAFT & GEROTOR PUMP:  Align rotor slot of the pump and slot of the pump body in line.  Slide the pump assembly on the output shaft over pump pin.  Slip hose clamp over free end of hose coupling with strainer and push onto hose barb on pump and tighten.  Install the output shaft spline into the reduction hub and engage the output shaft end with input shaft bearing.  Couple strainer with case and insert the magnet into the transfer case slot. ASSEMBLY OF CHAIN DRIVE:  Position the drive sprocket to the rear output shaft end and driven sprocket to the front output shaft end.  Install the drive chain onto the sprockets.  Holding each sprocket with drive chain tight and parallel with transfer case, install the drive chain assembly to the output shafts.  Rotate the driven sprocket slightly to engage splines on the front output shaft.  Install the spacer to the front output shaft and insert snap ring into the groove over spacer. CLOCK SPRING CONTINIVITY CHECKING PROCESS:
  25.  Crank the engine for making the front wheel in straight direction.  Start rotating the steering wheel to extreme left.  From extreme left, start rotating the steering wheel to extreme right. This total travel will Complete 3.5 rotations of steering wheel.  From extreme right side, start rotating the steering wheel for 1.75 turns to left side.  This 1.75 rotation (which you have done in step 4) confirms that the steering wheel is in Center of the vehicle.  Stop the engine.  Disconnect the Battery negative terminal.  Remove the Horn Pad.  Unplug the 8 Pole connector (Clock spring Vs steering wheel switches) & Horn terminal.  Loose the steering wheel nut and remove the same from steering rod.  Remove the steering wheel from steering rod. At most care to be taken while removing the steering wheel that the connector of clock spring should not get entangled in steering wheel cutout.  Remove the connector from steering wheel slot carefully.  Remove the 5 screws that fasten the steering column top & bottom cover.              Remove 4 screws of Clock spring which holds the clock spring on combination switch. Unplug the wiring harness connector which goes to Clock spring at bottom side of Clock spring. Check the continuity of clock spring as per below mentioned. If found any discontinuity in any circuit like Cruise, Audio control & Horn. Place the clock spring. Tighten the clock spring with four screws with 1Nm torque. Turn the transport locking clip (red color). Clock spring has total 5 rotations. Thistransport locking clip defines the center position of Clock spring. I.e. after breaking the lock clock spring will have 2.5 rotations on both sides. Hold the clock spring rotor wire in hand as shown below & Start rotating to extract Left in anticlockwise direction. From extreme left point start rotating the rotor to extreme right in clockwise direction Clock spring will complete 5 rotations from extreme left to extreme right. From extreme right start rotating the rotor for 2.5 rotations in anticlockwise direction. This point defines the middle position of the clock spring. With this we can ensure that Clock spring will have 2.5 rotations on either side. Connect 12 Pole connector of wiring harness to clock spring. Fix & press the top & Bottom column cover and fix with the help of 5 screws. Place the steering wheel on the steering rod. While placing this steering wheel ensure 8 pole connector of clock spring to taken out from slot provided on steering wheel along-with complete wiring harness.  Locate the steering wheel slot in clock spring grommet.  Tighten the steering wheel nut. Make sure that the steering wheel is in straight ahead Position with front wheels.  Make the connection of 8 pole connector of clock spring and steering wheel switches
  26.      Make the connection of horn terminal. Place the horn pad. Re-connect the battery negative terminal to Battery. Verify that the horn works. Turn ON the Ignition and check the Audio Control through steering wheel switches Functions.  Start the engine. Learn the power window regulator as per procedure mentioned in Smart power window. TYRE ROTATION PROCESS:  This is rotated for each 5000KMS.  Radial tires are rotated as per pattern of rotation indicated.  There is a difference in rotation pattern for rear wheel drive and front wheel drive vehicles.  Please follow the pattern of rotation as shown in the diagram for both with and without a spare tyre.  It is advisable to rotate tyre after approximately every 5000kms. DIAGRAM: FRONT WHEEL DRIVE 4 TYRE WITHOUT SPARE TYRE 5 TYRE WITH SPARE TYRE
  27. REAR WHEEL DRIVE 4 TYRE 5 TYRE WITHOUT SPARE TYRE WITH SPARE TYRE Knowledge gained:  We have improved our practical knowledge by this training regarding automobile vehicles  We have learned how to replace the brake shoes lining and the method used to clean the brake lining.  Replacing and service time of each parts in vehicles are learned.  We learned to change the engine, gear, brake and differential oils and their replacement period.  The gear arrangements, types of gears and their functions are learned  We have able to set up the engine parts. Such as piston, inlet and outlet valve, crank shaft, fly wheel,rings,connecting rod and timing gear etc.,  We have learned how to assemble the engine and other parts in automobile vehicles.  We have been learned how to set up the clutch plate and their types, functions.  We have been seen How to detect the problem using computer  We have learned to vary the caster, toe angles of the wheel to specified
  28. angle.  We have learned to operate some machines which reduce the human power, such as hydraulic lift, gun and wheel alignment machines etc.,  We have learned the way of treating the customers and require their problems.  We have been learned about the pollution controlling methods in automobile vehicles.

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