CK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
WORK ALONG PROGRAM
“ MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT”
This report is about the “WORK ALONG
PROGRAM” in “VST TATA MOTORS”.
We give a details of about the company and my
work learnings experiences.
we explained below that”what we are learnings in
the work along program”
And we give the short details about different
types of works inside the company.
And our sincere thanks to our faculties and HOD
for conducting this work along
LIST OF LEARNINGS IN WORK ALONG PROGRAM
DATE WORK TITLES
OVERVIEW THE COMPANY
KNOW ABOUT ENGINE PARTS
SERVICING A STEERING SYSTEM
OF DIESEL ENGINE VEHICLE
SERVICING A GEAR BOX
ASSEMBLING A NEW MODEL
PISTON TO FAILURE ENGINE
SERVICING A LUBRICATION
SYSTEM OF LORRY ENGINE
RECONSTRUCT THE ACCIDENT
PAINTING THE VEHICLES
REPAIR THE SEIZED ENGINE
SETUP THE TIMING GEARS
SERVICING A SUSPENSIONS
Overview of company
Profile of company
Sales & service
OVERVIEW OF COMPANY:
TATA MOTORS (formerly TELCO) is an Indian multinational automotive manufacturing
company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India and a subsidiary of the TataGroup.
Tata Motors products include passenger cars, trucks, vans, coaches, buses and military
vehicles. It is the world'seighteenth-largestmotorvehicle manufacturing company, fourthlargest truck manufacturer and second-largest bus manufacturer by volume. VST Motors Pvt.
Ltd was incorporated on 11th July, 1949 and is an authorized dealer for TATA Motors Ltd.
Until 1956 the company was the distributor for Austin and Studebaker cars. In 1956 we were
appointed as TELCO commercial vehicle dealers.
Over the last five decades we have opened multiple branches across the state of Tamilnadu.
The timeline is as follows:
1949 VST Motors Pvt. Ltd commenced operations dealing in AUSTIN and STUDEBAKER
1956 Appointed as a TELCO dealer (presently Tata Motors), one of the first to be appointed
in the country
1957 VST Motors branch opened at Salem
1958 VST Motors branch opened at Vellore
1961 VST Motors branch opened at Trichy
1962 VST Motors branch opened at Cuddalore
1978 VST Motors branch opened at Pondicherry
1992 Commenced Tata Motors Passenger Car sales in Chennai and Thiruchirapalli
VST Motors Ltd. (Head Office)
Chennai TamilNadu 600002
NAME OF THE COMPANY: VST MOTORS Pvt. Ltd.,
: TATA MOTORS (TELCO)
: KONDUR, NELLIKUPPAM MAIN ROAD, CUDDALORE
:04142- 225137, 290950, and 290317
: CHENNAI, INDIA
MODE OF PROCESS
: SALES & SERVICE
: 3-5 LAKHS IN SERVICE
: 1-2 LAKHS IN SPARE PARTS
: 10-20 LAKHS IN SALES
TARGET : 40 LAKHS PER MONTH
SPARE PARTS USED
: GENIUE SPARE PARTS FROM TELCO
SPARE PARTS FROM : TATA MOTORS IN MUMBAI & MAHARASHTRA, INDIA
SERVICING VECHICLE: ONLY TATA VECHICLES FROM ALL OVER INDIA
NUMBER OF VECHICLES
: 15-20 VECHICLES PER DAY
AREA OF SERVICE
WORSHOP: 1200×64 Sq FEET
MODE OF OPERATION
: ALL WORKS.
Such as, Engine Works, Body Works, Chassis Works ,Gear Box Works ,Suspension
Works ,Steering Works, Wheel Alignment , Wheel Balancing, Fc Works, Painting Works
,Brake Cleaning, Oil Service ,Clutch Work, Electrical Works, etc.,
NUMBER OF RAMP
: 3 RAMPS IN PERSONAL
1 RAMP IN PROSPER
OFFICE WORKING TIME: 8.45A.M TO 5.00 P.M
SECTIONS IN SERVICE WORKSHOP:
THE SERVICE WORKSHOP IS CLASSIFIED INTO 3 UNITS, THEY ARE
In personal unit only the cars are serviced. Such as Bolero, Scorpio, Xylo, Verito,
Verito Vibe, Thar, Logon, XUV500.
In prosper unit only the load carrying vehicles are serviced. Such as TATA ACE,
TATA407/909, TATA SUPER ACE, truck.
In Navistar unit only the vans are serviced. Such as Load King, Tourister.
NUMBER OF PERSON
Body shop Manager
All kinds of works are done in this service center but only for the vehicles which
are manufactured by Tata motor from all over India.
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION:
In engine sections the valve timing, replacement of engine spare parts, piston alignment and
etc works are doing here. Today, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is used
in motorcycles, automobiles, boats, trucks, aircraft, ships, heavy duty machinery, and in its
original intended use as stationary power both for kinetic and electrical power generation.
Diesel engines are found in virtually all heavy duty applications such as trucks, ships,
locomotives, power generation, and stationary power. Many of these diesel engines are twostroke with power ratings up to 105,000 hp (78,000 kW). A four-stroke engine (also known
as four-cycle) is an internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four separate
strokes—intake, compression, power, and exhaust—during two separate revolutions of the
engine's crankshaft, and one single thermodynamic cycle.
The following process done during engine in run process
1. INTAKE stroke: on the intake or induction stroke of the piston, the piston descends
from the top of the cylinder to the bottom of the cylinder, increasing the volume of
the cylinder. A mixture of fuel and air, or just air in a diesel engine, is forced by
atmospheric (or greater) pressure into the cylinder through the intake port. The
intake valve(s) then closes. The volume of air/fuel mixture that is drawn into the
cylinder, relative to the maximum volume of the cylinder, is called the volumetric
efficiency of the engine.
2. COMPRESSION stroke: with both intake and exhaust valves closed, the piston
returns to the top of the cylinder compressing the air or fuel-air mixture into
the combustion chamber of the cylinder head. During the compression stroke the
temperature of the air or fuel-air mixture rises by several hundred degrees.
3. POWER stroke: this is the start of the second revolution of the cycle. While the
piston is close to Top Dead Centre, the compressed air–fuel mixture in a gasoline
engine is ignited, usually by a spark plug, or fuel is injected into a diesel engine,
which ignites due to the heat generated in the air during the compression stroke. The
resulting pressure from the combustion of the compressed fuel-air mixture forces the
piston back down toward bottom dead centre.
4. EXHAUST stroke: during the exhaust stroke, the piston once again returns to top
dead centre while the exhaust valve is open. This action expels the spent fuel-air
mixture through the exhaust valve(s).
DESIGN & ENGINEERING PRINCIPLE:
(a) POWER OUTPUT LIMITATIONS
The four-stroke cycle
The idealized four-stroke Otto cycle p-V diagram: the intake (A) stroke is performed by
an isobaric expansion, followed by the compression (B) stroke, performed by an
adiabatic compression. Through the combustion of fuel anisochoric process is produced,
followed by an adiabatic expansion, characterizing the power (C) stroke. The cycle is
closed by an isochoric process and an isobaric compression, characterizing the
exhaust (D) stroke.
(b) INTAKE/EXHAUST PORT FLOW
The output power of an engine is dependent on the ability of intake (air–fuel
mixture) and exhaust matter to move quickly through valve ports, typically located
in the cylinder head.
To increase an engine's output power, irregularities in the intake and exhaust paths,
such as casting flaws, can be removed, and, with the aid of an air flow bench, the
radii of valve port turns and valve seat configuration can be modified to reduce
This process is called porting, and it can be done by hand or with a CNC machine.
(c) ROD AND PISTON-TO-STROKE RATIO:
The rod-to-stroke ratio is the ratio of the length of the connecting rod to the length of
the piston stroke.
A longer rod reduces sidewise pressure of the piston on the cylinder wall and the
stress forces, increasing engine life. It also increases the cost and engine height and
A "square engine" is an engine with a bore diameter equal to its stroke length. An
engine where the bore diameter is larger than its stroke length is an over
square engine, conversely, an engine with a bore diameter that is smaller than its
stroke length is an under square engine.
(d) VALVE TRAIN
The valves are typically operated by a camshaft rotating at half the speed of
the crankshaft. It has a series of cams along its length, each designed to open a valve
during the appropriate part of an intake or exhaust stroke.
A tappet between valve and cam is a contact surface on which the cam slides to open
the valve. Many engines use one or more camshafts ―above‖ a row (or each row) of
cylinders, as in the illustration, in which each cam directly actuates a valve through a
In other engine designs the camshaft is in the crankcase, in which case each cam
contacts a push, which contacts a rocker arm that opens a valve.
The overhead cam design typically allows higher engine speeds because it provides
the most direct path between cam and valve.
(e) VALVE CLEARANCE
Valve clearance refers to the small gap between a valve lifter and a valve stem that
ensures that the valve completely closes.
On engines with mechanical valve adjustment, excessive clearance causes noise
from the valve train.
A too small valve clearance can result in the valves not closing properly, this result
in a loss of performance and possibly overheating of exhaust valves.
Typically, the clearance must be readjusted each 20,000 miles (32,000 km) with a
Most modern production engines use hydraulic lifters to automatically compensate
for valve train component wear. Dirty engine oil may cause lifter failure.
(f) THERMO DYNAMIC ANALYSIS:
The thermodynamic analysis of the actual four-stroke or two-stroke cycles is not a
simple task. However, the analysis can be simplified significantly if air standard
assumptions are utilized. The resulting cycle, which closely resembles the actual
operating conditions, is the Otto cycle.
OIL SERVICE PROCESS:
In oil service the gear, engine, differential, brake oils are changed.
The oil cap is lossened.Then the old effective less oil is removed through the oil
After removing the old oil the drain plug is tightened. Then the new oil is charged
into the elements.
Friction is reduced.
Provide good lubricating properties.
Engine efficiency increases.
Wheel Balancing and Alignment:
Wheel balancing and alignment are done at least every 5000kms.
Sensor holder is fixed in each wheel, and then the sensor is fixed
The toe, caster, camper angle are specified in alignment software.
The caster, toe angle is adjusted as per shown in monitor.
To provide good steering control.
To reduce the wheel vibration.
BRAKE LINING PROCESS:
The wheel is removed from the drum, and then the drum is removed.
The springs connected in brake shoes are disconnected. Then the old lining is
replaced by new ones.
The propeller shaft is disconnected. Then the clutch cover is removed.
Pressure plate and clutch plate is removed from fly wheel.
Then the old pressure and clutch is replaced.
To disconnect the power while changing the gear.
To reduce the friction in gear.
The process of replacing the shock absorber, camper rod, toe rod is known as
The wheels are removed. The steering rods are disconnected
Then the damaged component is replaced by new ones.
One way to increase engine power is to force more air into the cylinder so that more
power can be produced from each power stroke.
This can be done using some type of air compression device known as
a supercharger, which can be powered by the engine crankshaft.
Supercharging increases the power output limits of an internal combustion engine
relative to its displacement.
Most commonly, the supercharger is always running, but there have been designs
that allow it to be cut out or run at varying speeds (relative to engine speed).
Mechanically driven supercharging has the disadvantage that some of the output
power is used to drive the supercharger, while power is wasted in the high pressure
exhaust, as the air has been compressed twice and then gains more potential volume
in the combustion but it is only expanded in one stage.
TURBO CHARGING PROCESS:
In turbo charger system the exhaust gas which would normally be wasted, is used
to drive a turbine. The turbine shaft is connected to a compressor which draws in
filtered air compresses is and then supplies to the engine.
The turbine drives a compressor which draws in filtered air and feeds this, at a
higher pressure, to the engine.
This enables more fuel to be burnt with a greater mass of charge air, increasing
engine power output. Better air availability enhances better combustion, thus
leading to lower fuel consumption and less emission.
Turbo system is 30 times faster than engine and the spins speed is150,000 rpm
As a result turbo chargers contribute significantly to the protective of the
environment and better utilization of energy resources
TURBO SYSTEM’S NEED
Clearance between rotor and journals
Dynamically balanced parts
Lubrication is needed to lubricate the system
Low fuel consumption.
Better torque characteristics.
Lower weight and a smaller engine package.
Lower engine noise.
Reduced power uses at altitude compensation.
This system is used to maintained the temperature of engine by means of regulate/control
the thermo stat valve which is connected between the engine and radiator. This valve is
opened due to expansion of some liquid which is lift the valve(attached valve in system/not
working in any valve mechanism)
This valve opened when the engine temperature above 90oC
Till this temperature they are opening. When temperature down below 90oC then it
will automatically closed.
TURBO INTER COOLER SYSTEM:
This system is used to maintained the inlet air-fuel mixture/air temperature. It is extracted
from turbo charger system. When the air is sucked from air filter it will manipulate the air
into working temperature condition. By means of feeding working conditioned air we got
Reduce the inlet manifold temperature
Reduce the exhaust emission
Get engine maximum efficiency
EXHAUST GAS RE-CIRCULATOR:
This system is one of the best system which is extracted from turbo charger system. The
name itself indicates exhaust gas re circulator that means 20% of exhaust gas is again used
as a inlet. This is only used when high load variation in vehicle (less air is sucked/to
improve high rotations of engine shaft)
REMOVAL OF THE AXLE FROM THE VEHICLE:
Remove tiers using wheel spanner
Support body on stand
Remove the shock absorber
Remove the brake pipe t clamp from axle
Axle to be supported & should not fall Loosen U clamps
Remove the LSPV spring from axle end
Remove the axle from the vehicle
REMOVAL OF THE DIFFERENTIAL ASSEMBLY:
Drained the oil & remove axle shaft from both side.
Remove the differential cover set screws ensure that the oil had been drained out.
Remove the side bearing bolts & caps
Expand the differential carrier
Do not exceed a limit of carrier spread. use dial indicator & measured the spread.
Do not exceed a limit of 0.5mm
Pull out the crown along with the bearings
Lock the companion flange
Unlock the pinion nut remove the companion flange along with the dust cover.
Remove oil seal
Remove the pinion along with bearings.
DIFFERENTIAL SIDE BEARING REMOVAL & REFITMENT:
Remove the differential side bearings by using bearing puller
To install the differential side bearing, use bearing driver
ADJUSTMENT OF DIFFERENTIAL SIDE GEARS:
With the differential positioned on one side, bounce the Differential lightly on a
flat surface so that the differential gears settle.
Measure the clearance between the side gears & the case.
If the clearance exceeds 0.15mm, add shims between side gears & the case.
Keep shim packs as equal as possible on each side.
Place crown wheel over the differential case, Assemble the lock straps along
Tighten opposite bolts & torque them to 5.5 to 7.0 kg-m.
INSTALLATION OF AXLE SHAFT OIL SEAL:
A] Full Floating Axle
Axle shaft oil seal [inner] can be installed using Special tool
B] Semi-floating axle [Old type -CL 500/550 DI]: Axle shaft oil seal [Outer seals]
can be installed using proper tool.
PINION HEIGHT CHECKING:
This method is used for checking the pinion height to confirm that the original
setting is not disturbed.
Remove differential assembly
This method is used for checking the pinion height to confirm that the original
setting is not disturbed.
Remove differential assembly
Note the reading on pinion top [ Z Value ]
If the pinion reading is ‗+ ‘, check the gap between master gauge & pinion. If this
gap & pinion reading is same, pinion height is ok. [+/-2 thou variation is allowed ]
If the pinion reading is ‗-‘, check the gap between master gauge & ring gear side
bearing seats. If this gap & pinion reading is same, pinion height is ok. [+/-2 thou
variation is allowed ]
PINION HEIGHT ADJUSTMENT:
This method is used while replacing the old crown & pinion if the original setting is
not disturbed earlier.
Note the reading of ‗Z‘value etched on old & new pinion.
Find the difference between them by using following formula. [OLD PINION
READING] -[ NEW PINION READING]
If the difference: [OLD PINION READING] -[ NEW PINION READING] Give
‗+‘value, it indicate the amount of shim to be added in original shim pack.
If the difference: [OLD PINION READING] -[ NEW PINION READING] Give ‗‘value, it indicate the amount of shim to be removed from original shim pack.
RING GEAR & PINION BACKLASH SETTING:
Remove differential assembly from housing.
Remove differential side bearing
Remove shims from both the side & press bearing w/o shim
EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES BHARAT STAGE II/IIIENGINES
BSII -ALL INDIA IMPLEMENTATION BY APRIL 2005 TATA RANGE
EMISSION CONTROL FOR BSII DIESEL ENGINES
Diesel(C10h22) + Air(77% N2, 23% O2) ---> Co2+ H20 + N2
Diesel(C10h22) + Air(77% N2, 23% O2) ---> Co2+ H20 + N2+ Co + Hc + NOx+ PM +
COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST
Co-colorless, poisonous gas HC colorless, poisonous gas Nox-brownish, poisonous gas, pmparticulate matter, commonly called soot or smoke co2-non-poisonous -potential greenhouse
gas related to global warming. H2O-Non-Poisonous
EMISSION CONTROL FOR BS2 DIESEL ENGINES
BHARAT STAGE 2 EMISSION NORMS –TYPE APPROVAL
4 wheeler Passenger DIESEL Vehicles with GVW < 3.5 Tons •Vehicles with seating
Capacity > 6 persons ( Including Driver) or GVW > 2500 kg)
Chassis Dynamometer Tests (Cycle: EEC + EUDC -90kmph)
All in g/km
1250<RW < 1700
RW –REFERENCE WEIGHT –CURB WEIGHT + 200 Kgs
Tests are on Chassis Dynamometer EUDC Cycle Speed is limited to 90kmphinstead
of 120 km/h (in EEC).
EMISSION CONTROL FOR BSII DIESEL ENGINES
Emission control technologies try to reduce these harmful exhaust gases by the
1. In-cylinder combustion improvements
In-cylinder improvements aims to attack the problem at the source, i.e.
improve the quality of combustion inside the cylinder so that less of harmful
pollutants are produced inside the cylinder.
Some of the in-cylinder options are:
(i) Modification to internal engine components
(ii) Modifications to fuel injection system
(iii) Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system
2. Exhaust gas after treatment
Exhaust gas after treatment aims to reduce the pollutants after they are generated
inside the engine but before it is released to the atmosphere.
Some of the options are:
(I) catalyst in the exhaust
PRINCIPLES OF NOx GENERATION
Nox (oxides of nitrogen) comprises of various types of oxides of Nitrogen, clubbed
together. These are NO, NO2, No3, N2O2, etc.
Nitrogen is an inert gas and will not react with oxygen in normal conditions. However,
under certain conditions, nitrogen starts to react with oxygen and forms oxides of nitrogen.
Conditions favoring formation of NOX.
1. In-cylinder temperatures excessive of 1800°C
2. Availability of excess free oxygen
Technologies for NOX. Control aims to reduce either one or both of the above factors inside
the engine cylinder.
Principles of NOX. Control
NOX. Can be controlled either by arresting the formation, at source or by exhaust after
1. in-cylinder NOX.control
Formation of NOX. Can be controlled either by reducing the combustion temperatures or by
reducing the availability of free oxygen. This is achieved by exhaust gas recirculation -EGR,
2. Exhaust after treatment NOX.Control
Catalytic treatment of NOX. Requires a catalyst to reduce NOX to N2. The available catalysts
to reduce NOX. to N2works on oxygen- free exhaust. There is no catalyst technology
available, as of now, which can reduce NOX.in an oxygen-rich exhaust, as found in diesel
Principles of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
EGR system recirculates part of the burnt exhaust back in to the intake system, to help in
reducing the combustion temperatures as well as reducing the quantity of free oxygen.
Reduction of combustion temperatures-exhaust gases is inert gases with a very high value of
Cp, i.e. they do not take part in combustion but absorbs heat without increasing its
temperature. This acts as a heat sink and reduces the overall combustion temperatures.
Reduction of free oxygen inside cylinder-exhaust gases occupy some space and reduce the
equivalent amount of free oxygen.
DOUBLE CONE SYNCHRONIZER SET UP:
Place hub on the plain surface and install sleeve on to the hub as shown in the
picture. Please ensure big groove comes exactly in center of the hub slot.
Place 3 nos. struts at each slot of the hub. Push struts against sleeve and slid in
Be careful, struts should not jump out of ring, causes injury
Place outer ring on the hub by engaging ring‘s projections in to hub pockets
Place intermediate ring as shown in the picture, three tangs should come in front
of groove on the hub.
Place inner ring by engaging tangs with the pocket of outer ring.
For reference: marking on the inner ring should come exactly in center of groove
on the hub.
Please ensure that inner ring is seated properly in the Pocket of outer ring.
Intermediate ring and inner ring should be almost at one level.
Place 1st gear by engaging intermediate ring‘s tang with the three cuts on the dog
plate of gear.
Please ensure other synchronizer assembly remains in the same position.
Invert the above whole assembly and put on to the Gear box shaft.
Put outer ring, intermediate ring, inner ring and 2nd gear as described above
Improved Shift quality – smooth shifting
Improved shift performance - reduced shift times
No deterioration in shift quality during life
Reduced wear gap, Shorter shift
GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY:
Assemble Main shaft gear with synchronizer units & bearings
Fit main shaft assay in intermediate plate & fit the snap ring
Fit bearing retainer plate. Torque bolts to 3.00 kgm
Assemble 1st/ 2nd& 3rd/ 4thshift rail, rail end assembly and shift forks.
Take care that poppet springs, interlock pin / finger and balls are not damaged or
mixed / misplaced while assembling fork and rail assembly.
Do not forget to assemble Reverse gear on the Main Shaft.
While assembling, ensure fitment of spacer.
GB assay is possible without the spacer.
Assemble sliding gear with 5th/ Reverse Synchronizer assay along with shift rail &
shift fork assembly
Assemble ball, poppet spring and plug.
Apply Loctite-542 on the threads of poppet plug while assembling
Assemble the front housing with the assembled intermediate housing.
Assemble the 5thdrive gear assembly on to the 5th/ Reverse sub-shaft
Assemble 5thdriven gear and bearing assembly on to the main shaft.
Assemble the spacer -5thdrive gear on the sub- shaft.
Assemble the ball bearing on the sub shaft
Fit the rear housing onto the Intermediate plate
Put correct shim on the main drive shaft.
Assemble snap ring.
Fit Spacer on the counter shaft
Place Belleville washer properly on to the clutch release bearing sleeve.
(Smear grease to locate washer properly)
Assemble clutch release bearing sleeve
Take care that front end oil seal is not damaged
Assemble speedometer driven gear and Speedo sleeve
Apply Loctite -5 10 on threads of Speedo sleeve to avoid oil leakage
Assemble interlock pin, finger, balls, poppet spring and poppet plug.
Apply Loctite-542 on the threads of poppet plug while assembling.
Fit companion flange, washer and Nyloc nut.
Assemble gear shift lever along with self-contained biasing unit.
Fit shift lever grommet
Check for smooth shifting.
Fill oil & check for any leakage
ASSEMBLY OF CASE:
Insert the two new dowel pins.
Press the ball bearing into the case and install the retaining ring (snap ring).
Install the new oil seal, by pressing it into the case.
Make sure that all parts are correctly and firmly installed into the case
ASSEMBLY OF ADAPTER, INPUT SHAFT AND CARRIER ASSEMBLY:
Press the needle bearing and the new sleeve bearing into the input shaft (if removed).
Install the sun gear onto the input shaft and put thrust plate, thrust washer and press
the bearing onto the input shaft.
After pressing the bearing, install the retaining ring.
Insert the above assembly into the planet carrier. (Ensure that planet carrier assembly
on the work bench is such that the retaining rings ‘mounting groove faces upward).
Install the retaining ring to the planet carrier.
Press the serial pin into the front adapter.
Press the oil seal into the front adapter.
Invert front adapter assembly. Install snap ring by make sure that snap ring is
correctly installed into the groove.
Position the input shaft assembly over front adapter and engage into bearing groove
by expanding the ends of snap ring (Push Input shaft and carrier assembly in to the
Apply 1.6 mm bead of sealant on the mounting face for the transfer case and tighten
the six bolts. 11. Install the breather barb.
ASSEMBLY OF YOKE:
Position the output shaft in transfer case and install the end yoke assembly, seal,
washer and nut.
Holding the end yoke by yoke holder, tighten the nut.
Turn the fixture for further assembly.
ASSEMBLY OF REDUCTION SHIFT PARTS:
Install the two forks facing on the reduction shift fork assembly.
Install the reduction hub in to the fork.
Install reduction hub and fork in to the planet carrier.
Insert shift rail in reduction fork bore, to match with case bore.
ASSEMBLY OF ELECTRICAL SHIFT CAM PARTS:
Insert spacer into torsion spring insert the shift shaft into the spacer. Slide electric
cam on to the shift shaft.
Slide the torsion spring and spacer to the right of the shift shaft and position the end
of the first spring to fix on the drive tang.
Position the cam on the second spring and rotated anticlockwise. Push the end of the
second spring to left with cam and fix it on the drive tang.
ASSEMBLY OF OUTPUT SHAFT & GEROTOR PUMP:
Align rotor slot of the pump and slot of the pump body in line.
Slide the pump assembly on the output shaft over pump pin.
Slip hose clamp over free end of hose coupling with strainer and push onto hose barb
on pump and tighten.
Install the output shaft spline into the reduction hub and engage the output shaft end
with input shaft bearing.
Couple strainer with case and insert the magnet into the transfer case slot.
ASSEMBLY OF CHAIN DRIVE:
Position the drive sprocket to the rear output shaft end and driven sprocket to the
front output shaft end.
Install the drive chain onto the sprockets.
Holding each sprocket with drive chain tight and parallel with transfer case, install
the drive chain assembly to the output shafts.
Rotate the driven sprocket slightly to engage splines on the front output shaft.
Install the spacer to the front output shaft and insert snap ring into the groove over
CLOCK SPRING CONTINIVITY CHECKING PROCESS:
Crank the engine for making the front wheel in straight direction.
Start rotating the steering wheel to extreme left.
From extreme left, start rotating the steering wheel to extreme right. This total travel
will Complete 3.5 rotations of steering wheel.
From extreme right side, start rotating the steering wheel for 1.75 turns to left side.
This 1.75 rotation (which you have done in step 4) confirms that the steering wheel
is in Center of the vehicle.
Stop the engine.
Disconnect the Battery negative terminal.
Remove the Horn Pad.
Unplug the 8 Pole connector (Clock spring Vs steering wheel switches) & Horn
Loose the steering wheel nut and remove the same from steering rod.
Remove the steering wheel from steering rod. At most care to be taken while
removing the steering wheel that the connector of clock spring should not get
entangled in steering wheel cutout.
Remove the connector from steering wheel slot carefully.
Remove the 5 screws that fasten the steering column top & bottom cover.
Remove 4 screws of Clock spring which holds the clock spring on combination
Unplug the wiring harness connector which goes to Clock spring at bottom side
of Clock spring.
Check the continuity of clock spring as per below mentioned.
If found any discontinuity in any circuit like Cruise, Audio control & Horn.
Place the clock spring.
Tighten the clock spring with four screws with 1Nm torque.
Turn the transport locking clip (red color). Clock spring has total 5 rotations.
Thistransport locking clip defines the center position of Clock spring. I.e. after
breaking the lock clock spring will have 2.5 rotations on both sides.
Hold the clock spring rotor wire in hand as shown below & Start rotating to
extract Left in anticlockwise direction.
From extreme left point start rotating the rotor to extreme right in clockwise
direction Clock spring will complete 5 rotations from extreme left to extreme right.
From extreme right start rotating the rotor for 2.5 rotations in anticlockwise
This point defines the middle position of the clock spring. With this we can
ensure that Clock spring will have 2.5 rotations on either side.
Connect 12 Pole connector of wiring harness to clock spring.
Fix & press the top & Bottom column cover and fix with the help of 5 screws.
Place the steering wheel on the steering rod. While placing this steering wheel
ensure 8 pole connector of clock spring to taken out from slot provided on steering
wheel along-with complete wiring harness.
Locate the steering wheel slot in clock spring grommet.
Tighten the steering wheel nut. Make sure that the steering wheel is in straight
ahead Position with front wheels.
Make the connection of 8 pole connector of clock spring and steering wheel
Make the connection of horn terminal.
Place the horn pad.
Re-connect the battery negative terminal to Battery.
Verify that the horn works.
Turn ON the Ignition and check the Audio Control through steering wheel
Start the engine. Learn the power window regulator as per procedure mentioned
in Smart power window.
TYRE ROTATION PROCESS:
This is rotated for each 5000KMS.
Radial tires are rotated as per pattern of rotation indicated.
There is a difference in rotation pattern for rear wheel drive and front wheel drive
Please follow the pattern of rotation as shown in the diagram for both with and
without a spare tyre.
It is advisable to rotate tyre after approximately every 5000kms.
FRONT WHEEL DRIVE
WITHOUT SPARE TYRE
WITH SPARE TYRE
REAR WHEEL DRIVE
WITHOUT SPARE TYRE
WITH SPARE TYRE
We have improved our practical knowledge by this training regarding
We have learned how to replace the brake shoes lining and the method
used to clean the brake lining.
Replacing and service time of each parts in vehicles are learned.
We learned to change the engine, gear, brake and differential oils and their
The gear arrangements, types of gears and their functions are learned
We have able to set up the engine parts. Such as piston, inlet and outlet
valve, crank shaft, fly wheel,rings,connecting rod and timing gear etc.,
We have learned how to assemble the engine and other parts in automobile
We have been learned how to set up the clutch plate and their types,
We have been seen How to detect the problem using computer
We have learned to vary the caster, toe angles of the wheel to specified
We have learned to operate some machines which reduce the human
power, such as hydraulic lift, gun and wheel alignment machines etc.,
We have learned the way of treating the customers and require their
We have been learned about the pollution controlling methods in