DO’S AND DON’T
Cedric D. Murry
APT Instructor of
Applied Technology in research and
OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION
The Selection of a Research Design
Review of the Literature
The Use of Theory
Writing Strategies and Ethical Consideration
The Introduction in the Designing of the Research
The Purpose Statement
Research Questions and Hypotheses
Mixed Methods Procedures
THE USE OF THEORY
Theory and research are equally important to the process of accumulating knowledge
through the scientific method (Bringle, 2003; Bringle & Hatcher, 2000). The process
can begin at different points on the diagram (Figure 1). It may start with a preliminary
theory that, through the deductive process, generates testable hypotheses that are
evaluated through research, the results of which produce decisions about the theory
(e.g., supported, refuted, need to revise). Alternatively, specific observations may be
used to generalize principles that are conceptually developed into a theory that then
guides subsequent research that evaluates research questions and deduced hypotheses.
Do: Make sure you do specific observations which may be used to generalize principles
that are conceptually developed into theory.
Don’t: Don’t make assumptions on one point, this theory begin at differents points.
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
A literature review may be purely descriptive, as in an annotated bibliography,
or it may provide a critical assessment of the literature in a particular field,
stating where the weaknesses and gaps are, contrasting the views of particular
authors, or raising questions. Such a review will not just be a summary but will
also evaluate and show relationships between different material, so that key
themes emerge. Even a descriptive review however should not just list and
paraphrase, but should add comment and bring out themes and trends.
Do:•Do backup your work. You need to have at least 2 copies of your work so
it won't disappear when(not if) you have a malfunction
Don’t: •Don't put your name in the upper right header or use running titles.
THE INTRODUCTION IN THE
DESIGNING OF THE RESEARCH
Design research can be done during any phase of the design
process. It requires a specific way of thinking to reason from your
design question to conclusions relevant for your design process.
Many different research approaches can be applied during a
design process. However, the global manner of setting up a study
is usually very similar.
THE PURPOSE STATEMENT
The purpose statement builds on the knowledge gap in the problem
statement. Describe what new knowledge the study will produce. This is not
the specific content or answer but rather the type of knowledge that will be
produced. The should directly address the knowledge gap in the problem
statement. Then describe what will someone be able to do better once they
have the findings from this study? The generic purpose of a research study is
to produce new credible empirical knowledge and insights.
Do: clarify the type of knowledge to be generated by the study.
Don’t: Make assumptions
RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND
An important first step toward providing a sound conceptual foundation for
your research project is the development of solid research questions and
hypotheses. This process typically begins with a preliminary review of the
existing literature for your topic. A research question poses a relationship
between two or more variables but phrases the relationship in terms of some
Do: A well researched and thought out question will help focus your ideas and
ensure you are collecting the appropriate data.
Don’t: Never skip the first step.
In quantitative research, your goal is to determine the relationship between
one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome
variable) in a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive
(subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before
and after a treatment). A descriptive study establishes only associations
between variables. An experiment establishes causality. Quantitative research
deals in numbers, logic and the objective, focusing on logic, numbers, and
unchanging static data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than
Do: The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high
Don’t: Wait to run a experiment.
Qualitative research is a broad field of inquiry that uses
unstructured data collection methods, such as observations or
documents to find themes and meanings to inform our
understanding of the world. Qualitative research tends to try to
uncover the reasons for behaviors, attitudes and
motivations, instead of just the details of what, where and when.
Qualitative research can be done across many disciplines, such as
social science, healthcare and business. To do qualitative
research, there are some steps you can follow.
MIXED METHODS PROCEDURES
Mixed methods researchers use and often make explicit diverse philosophical
positions. These positions often are referred to as dialectal stances that bridge
post positivist and social constructivist worldviews, pragmatic perspectives,
and transformative perspectives (Greene, 2007). For example, researchers who
hold different philosophical positions may find mixed methods research to be
challenging because of the tensions created by their different beliefs (Greene,
2007). However, mixed methods research also represents an opportunity to
transform these tensions into new knowledge through a dialectical discovery.
Research Methodology, A step-by-step guide for beginners, by Ranjit Kumar, published
by Sage Publications Ltd. (ISBN 0 7619 6213 1).
Moustakas, C., 1994. Phenomenological research methods. Sage publications.