Do’s and don’t for Applied Technology.


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Do’s and don’t for Applied Technology.

  1. 1. DO’S AND DON’T PRESENTATION PRESENTED BY: Cedric D. Murry APT Instructor of Applied Technology in research and development.
  2. 2. OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION The Selection of a Research Design Review of the Literature The Use of Theory Writing Strategies and Ethical Consideration The Introduction in the Designing of the Research The Purpose Statement Research Questions and Hypotheses Quantitative Procedures Qualitative Procedures Mixed Methods Procedures
  4. 4. THE USE OF THEORY Theory and research are equally important to the process of accumulating knowledge through the scientific method (Bringle, 2003; Bringle & Hatcher, 2000). The process can begin at different points on the diagram (Figure 1). It may start with a preliminary theory that, through the deductive process, generates testable hypotheses that are evaluated through research, the results of which produce decisions about the theory (e.g., supported, refuted, need to revise). Alternatively, specific observations may be used to generalize principles that are conceptually developed into a theory that then guides subsequent research that evaluates research questions and deduced hypotheses. Do: Make sure you do specific observations which may be used to generalize principles that are conceptually developed into theory. Don’t: Don’t make assumptions on one point, this theory begin at differents points.
  6. 6. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE A literature review may be purely descriptive, as in an annotated bibliography, or it may provide a critical assessment of the literature in a particular field, stating where the weaknesses and gaps are, contrasting the views of particular authors, or raising questions. Such a review will not just be a summary but will also evaluate and show relationships between different material, so that key themes emerge. Even a descriptive review however should not just list and paraphrase, but should add comment and bring out themes and trends. Do:•Do backup your work. You need to have at least 2 copies of your work so it won't disappear when(not if) you have a malfunction Don’t: •Don't put your name in the upper right header or use running titles.
  7. 7. THE INTRODUCTION IN THE DESIGNING OF THE RESEARCH Design research can be done during any phase of the design process. It requires a specific way of thinking to reason from your design question to conclusions relevant for your design process. Many different research approaches can be applied during a design process. However, the global manner of setting up a study is usually very similar.
  8. 8. THE PURPOSE STATEMENT The purpose statement builds on the knowledge gap in the problem statement. Describe what new knowledge the study will produce. This is not the specific content or answer but rather the type of knowledge that will be produced. The should directly address the knowledge gap in the problem statement. Then describe what will someone be able to do better once they have the findings from this study? The generic purpose of a research study is to produce new credible empirical knowledge and insights. Do: clarify the type of knowledge to be generated by the study. Don’t: Make assumptions
  9. 9. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES An important first step toward providing a sound conceptual foundation for your research project is the development of solid research questions and hypotheses. This process typically begins with a preliminary review of the existing literature for your topic. A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship in terms of some question. Do: A well researched and thought out question will help focus your ideas and ensure you are collecting the appropriate data. Don’t: Never skip the first step.
  10. 10. QUANTITATIVE PROCEDURES In quantitative research, your goal is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before and after a treatment). A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables. An experiment establishes causality. Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic and the objective, focusing on logic, numbers, and unchanging static data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning. Do: The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Don’t: Wait to run a experiment.
  11. 11. QUALITATIVE PROCEDURES Qualitative research is a broad field of inquiry that uses unstructured data collection methods, such as observations or documents to find themes and meanings to inform our understanding of the world. Qualitative research tends to try to uncover the reasons for behaviors, attitudes and motivations, instead of just the details of what, where and when. Qualitative research can be done across many disciplines, such as social science, healthcare and business. To do qualitative research, there are some steps you can follow.
  12. 12. MIXED METHODS PROCEDURES Mixed methods researchers use and often make explicit diverse philosophical positions. These positions often are referred to as dialectal stances that bridge post positivist and social constructivist worldviews, pragmatic perspectives, and transformative perspectives (Greene, 2007). For example, researchers who hold different philosophical positions may find mixed methods research to be challenging because of the tensions created by their different beliefs (Greene, 2007). However, mixed methods research also represents an opportunity to transform these tensions into new knowledge through a dialectical discovery.
  13. 13. RESOURCES/REFERENCE Research Methodology, A step-by-step guide for beginners, by Ranjit Kumar, published by Sage Publications Ltd. (ISBN 0 7619 6213 1). Moustakas, C., 1994. Phenomenological research methods. Sage publications.