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Paintin' the Fence

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  • 1. The long way from MAB to MARC 21Experiences from Germany and Austria Reinhold Heuvelmann German National Library Office for Data Formats International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 2. Mark Twain: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Chapter II © True Williams Saturday morning was come, ... International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 3. Standards & ChangesZIP codes in Germany„1999“ => „2000“Reform of orthographyCurrency: DM etc. => €Coded Character Sets => UnicodeCANMARC, UKMARC, ... => MARC 21...cf. removal International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 4. MAB„Maschinelles Austauschformat für Bibliotheken“ (automatedlibrary exchange format)established in 1973 („MAB1“)maintained by the German National Libraryin close cooperation with the German experts‘ group for dataformats (formerly „MAB-Ausschuss“)revised in 1994 („MAB2“)Bibliographic, Authority, Holdings, Classification, Addresses1998 - 2004: process of internationalization (Unicode, DublinCore, MAB english, FRBR, XML)weakness: national / isolated standard International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 5. The decision for MARC 212001-12: internationalization of librarystandards (cataloging rules & formats)vivid discussionsfeasibility study (strategic, technical,economical aspects), funded by DFG2004-12: introduction and uniform use ofMARC 21 as the exchange format for alllibraries in Germany and Austria International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 6. Pros and Consimport of international datavisibility of German and Austrian datalarge community and expertisetake part in developmentsbetter choice of systems long way to go language international framework MAB deep inside the systems loose ends International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 7. Castnational:Office for Library Standards, incl. Project StaffOffice for Data FormatsExperts‘ Group for Data Formats+ external expertsinternational:Library of Congress, NDMSOLAC Canada, British LibraryALA MARBIFunding by• Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft• Andrew W. Mellon Foundation International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 8. Principlesretain existing dataretain existing functionalitiesabandon historic burdensdecouple the process from related developmentskeep compliance to the standard MARC International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 9. Multipart Publications („Hierarchies“)each volume => 1 record+ the set itself => 1 additional record(no records for sections / subsets)each record bibliographically completevolumes with strong titles => 490 + 8XXvolumes without strong titles => 245 $a $n $p + 773 $w (no 505)linking by textual forms and IDs International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 10. Mapping from MAB to MARCcomprehensive ...detailed ...careful ...cooperative ...always cross-checking ... © Norman Rockwell International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 11. Mapping: Algorithmequivalent element available in MARC ? =>else: loose end weighing: can fall apart (list of cancellations) ? => or loss of granularity ? => or new entry into MARC code list ? => else: relevant definable in MARC 21 ? => else: to be defined locally => International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 12. Mapping: ExperiencesMARC complex, well structuredMAB: mostly without subfields => group of fieldsMARC: with subfields => one fieldprocess of cleaning up / sorting outsurprises, disappointments, and understandingscodes (MARC: 006 / 007 / 008) => RDA ?different cataloging codes, cataloging practices, systems International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 13. Mapping: Resultsavailable on DNB website:http://www.d-nb.de /eng /standardisierung /formate /konkordanz.htmwork in progress International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 14. MARBI: German and Austrian Wishlist•linking by ID-numbers: control subfields $w and $0•replacement records („Umlenkungen“)•normalized / machine-sortable information•codes:multiparts, acidity of paper, nature of contents•other:former NBN, type of keyword, place, former call number• element-level responsibility (Subject Headings, DDC)mutual benefitshttp://www.loc.gov/marc/marbi/2007/2007-dp01.html International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 15. MARBI: PerspectivesGerman and Austrian package:discussions in January 2007, decisions in June 2007DDC Discussion Paper (with LC and OCLC):discussions in June 2007, decisions in January 2008Authority format: dates & languageslarger framework=> longer process of discussions and decisionsongoing cooperation International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 16. The MARC LineDirectoryLDR|001|002|003|004|005|006|007|008|009|...|999 International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 17. The MARC Fence090 | 091 | 092 | 093 | 094 | 095 | 096 | 097 | 098 | 099080 | 081 | 082 | 083 | 084 | 085 | 086 | 087 | 088 | 089070 | 071 | 072 | 073 | 074 | 075 | 076 | 077 | 078 | 079060 | 061 | 062 | 063 | 064 | 065 | 066 | 067 | 068 | 069050 | 051 | 052 | 053 | 054 | 055 | 056 | 057 | 058 | 059040 | 041 | 042 | 043 | 044 | 045 | 046 | 047 | 048 | 049030 | 031 | 032 | 033 | 034 | 035 | 036 | 037 | 038 | 039020 | 021 | 022 | 023 | 024 | 025 | 026 | 027 | 028 | 029010 | 011 | 012 | 013 | 014 | 015 | 016 | 017 | 018 | 019LDR | 001 | 002 | 003 | 004 | 005 | 006 | 007 | 008 | 009 International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 18. The MARC Cube 990|... 490|......020|...010|011|... ... Hypercube ?LDR|001|002|... International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 19. Defining local fields XX9 („right“ layer)+ X9X („top“ layer)+ 9XX („back“ layer)+ Indicators 1 and 2 = „9“+ $9less than 15 fields / format„As many as needed -- as few as possible.“ International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 20. Two minor decisionsnon-sorting characters:at the beginning of a field or subfield, or inside asubfieldhandled by Non-Sorting Control Charactershttp://www.loc.gov/marc/nonsorting.htmlISBD:no embedded interpunction at the end of a subfield International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 21. Translation, and Edition Systemtechnicians – catalogersglossaryMARC 21 Concise + local fields=> Official German Translation of MARC 21maintenance and documentationinput MARC in XML + manuallyoutput PDF + XML + HTMLopen for future additions (RDA, ...) International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 22. MARCXMLMARCXML as variant of / successor to[MARC in ISO 2709]MODSQuestionnaire: Is the German and Austrianlibrary community prepared for using MARCdata in XML structure? International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 23. Coded Character SetsMAB: ISO 646 (IRV) + ISO 5426 IBM Codepage 850 ISO/IEC 10646 / UnicodeMARC: MARC-8 ISO/IEC 10646 / Unicodemappings available International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 24. Summing upMAB: stabilized, frozen„aufgehoben“ (inf. „aufheben“) suspended picked up preserved International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 25. Implementing MARC ... painting the other side of the fencereplace each MAB system / interface by its MARCequivalentHow to use MARC for real data?agreements upon contents, in addition to catalogingrules, to keep the data fairly consistent ... International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 26. The role of MARCExchange formatInternal format / cataloging formatdifferent situations in the regional library networks: ExLibris / Aleph 500 OCLC|PICAvariety of systems International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 27. Mark Twain: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Chapter III © Claus Kormannshaus „It‘s all done, Aunt.“ International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007
  • 28. Thank you ☺Reinhold HeuvelmannGerman National LibraryInformation Technology / Office for Data FormatsAdickesallee 1D-60322 Frankfurt am MainTelephone: +49-69-1525-1709Telefax: +49-69-1525-1799mailto:r.heuvelmann@d-nb.dehttp://www.d-nb.de International Workshop „MARC 21 – Experiences, Challenges and Visions“ Frankfurt, May 14th and 15th, 2007