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The Basic Structures Of Government
 

The Basic Structures Of Government

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Political Science Lesson

Political Science Lesson
The exam tutorials of International Relationships Department

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    The Basic Structures Of Government The Basic Structures Of Government Presentation Transcript

      • THE BASIC STRUCTURES OF GOVERNMENT
      • THE PLAN
      • discussion of political institutions
      • types of government
      • types of government by its actual examples
      • THE BASIC STRUCTURES OF GOVERNMENT
      • Political institution:
      • it connotes flamboyant buildings representing the might of the state
      • they are also the things relevant to the established and durable relationships of power and authority (tangible and intangible)
        • Constitutional Court
        • National Security Council
        • constitution of the Republic of Turkey
      • division of pre-institutional and institutional
        • it relates to the method of politics
        • it relates to multi-level accountability
      • the problem of consolidation/institutionalization
      • THE BASIC STRUCTURES OF GOVERNMENT
      • the problem of consolidation/institutionalization
        • it is relevant to the codification (laws)
        • it erodes the role and influence of personal actors (although they might play a pivotal role in the emergence of political institutions) (Ataturk)
        • it is relevant to longitude (historical context)
        • it is relevant to the extent of internalization and accommodation (in the absentee of a clear codified rules) (co-habitation in France)
        • it is relevant to the usage of governmental power (by whom and until when)
        • hence it is relevant to the interruptedly continuation of government
          • Question
          • What does ‘consolidation of democracy’ mean?
      • THE BASIC FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
      • The first division : Monarchy or Republic
      • all but few countries in the world are republics.
      • it does not necessarily mean, all republics are good and democratic.
      • Britain, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holland and Belgium are restricted monarchies, whereas, the monarchies in the Arabian peninsula befit to the definition of traditional monarchies.
      • the role played by the monarchs are different yet. (British king is just a figurehead whereas in Spain, the king has still important location in politics –even he is one of the founding fathers of democracy in Spain.)
      • in those countries, monarchies are individually political institutions on their own.
      • Edmund Burke criticized the French Revolution because the French monarcy was a reliable political institution distilled through the history.
      • question:
      • how can the European countries with monarchic governments be the most democratic regimes in the world?
        • monarchies assume an political integration role between the traditional segments of society (particularly in Britain)
        • monarchies may even assume the role of democratizing agent (Spanish case)
        • they are already established political institutions and when they act in democratic fashion, the outcome may change
        • however, in democratic monarchies (constitutional monarchies) monarchs plays a very symbolic role in political life
        • in democratic regimes (parliamentarian regimes particularly, the President fulfill what a traditional monarch does)
        • monarchs and republical presidents (in parliamentarian systems) are the head of state, whereas Premiers are head of government
        • particularly, the third world suffers from the lack of deeply institutionalized political mechanisms or institutions themselves
        • the third world lacks some efficient means to consolidate democracy
      • The second division : Unitary and Federal Systems
      • it is relevant to the territorial structuring of the nation
      • unitary system
        • highly centralized
        • its subdivisions (departments in France, provinces in Italy, counties in Sweden, vilayets in Turkey) are largely for administrative convenience
      • federal system
        • highly decentralized
        • its subdivisions are largely the representation of territorial division of political power (German lander, Swiss cantons, Yugoslavia Republics, US states)
      • confederation (highly loosed federation)
        • it is the highest decentralized system
        • it is so loosely formed that components (states, republics) can override the center (present Montenegro-Serbia or EU)
        • it tends to disintegrating or forming a more formidable federation)
      • UNITARY SYSTEMS
      • center exerts significant control over loval authorities
        • for instance, the scholl curricula is determined by the central ministry in Ankara
      • center has a national police force and control over local police force
      • the court system is also central, and body of laws are enforced in every part of the country
      • however, there are municipalities which assume some functions that the centre can not fulfill healthily, yet, they are still under firm scrutiny of the central government
      • on the other side, the trend is decentralization as much as possible
      • Cases of decentralization in unitary systems
      • devolution in Britain
        • as a response to the growing Scottish and Welsh nationalisms British parliament passed in 1977 devolution bills endowing political power
      • decentralization in France
        • France has distinctive regional subcultures: the Celtic Bretons, the southerners of Midi, Corsicans
        • Paris govern the departments (provinces) through a appointed prefect (governer-vali)
        • In Mitterand era (1980s), Paris endowed transferred some competences to those departments regarding local economic and financial affairs (thereby reversing about five century long centralization)
      • autonomy in Spain
        • Basque and Catalans regions are proud of their distinct cultures from Castillian majority (Euzkadi ta Askatasuna-ETA) demanded full independence to the Basque region
        • it is organized as ‘autonomies’ having rights to say in taxation matters, language and education through their own institutions (regional parliaments)
      • FEDERAL SYSTEMS
      • in federalism, composing units have a specific degree (changing from regime to regime) political authority on the territorial basis
      • although USSR was a federal state, it was considerably different from other Western federal states like Germany or even from Yugoslavia
      • in a federal state composing units (states) have
        • their own constitution
        • their own body of law (accorded with the federal laws of course)
        • their own parliament, government and courts
        • their own parties (mostly offshots of federal level political parties)
        • their own local police forces (not army)
        • they are represented in federal bodies (generally bicameral parliaments)
        • their own rights regarding language and culture
      • However, in federal regimes composing units (states)
      • depended on the federal (central) authorities regarding macro level economic decisions, security matters and foreign relations issues
      • federal decisions are based on check-balance between proportionality and delegative representation (upper house and house of representatives)
        • federal states are established
        • to unite against common enemies or rivals (Yugoslavia is surrounded by brigama (fears)
        • for economic reasons
        • to buttress the central government (as in the case of EU-US-India)
        • to weaken the central government (as in Yugoslavia)
          • -both of them for the sake of preserving national unity-
        • the right of secession from federal state is a disputable matter